structure and function in animal tissues

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epithelial tissue

sheets of cells, covers outer body, lines organs and cavities within the body, cells are closely packed often with tight junctions, they function as a barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, and fluid loss, forms active interfaces with the environment, highly renewal, highly cellular, avascular

simple cuboidal epithelium

*dice shaped cells
*specialized for secretion, lines kidney tubules and many glands (thyroid gland and salivary glands)

simple columnar epithelium

*large brick-shaped cells
*found where secretion or active absorption is important; lines the intestines, secreting digestive juices and absorbing nutrients

simple squamous epithelium

*single layer of plate-like cells, thin and leaky
*functions in exchange of material by diffusion, lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs, where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical

stratified columnar epithelial tissue

where secretion or absorption is important

stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue

found in kidney tubules and glands (thyroid and salivary)

stratified squamous epithelial tissue

regenerates rapidly; found on surfaces prone to abrasion
Ex: skin, lining of esophagus, anus, vagina

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

*has single layer of cells varying in height, ciliated cells
*in many vertebrates
*forms a mucous membrane that lines the portions of the respiratory tract; the beating cilia sweep the film of mucus along the surface

connective tissue

loose connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, blood, bone, adipose, cartilage

loose connective tissue

most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrae, binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place; gets its name from the loose weave of its fibers, which include a 3 types;found in skin and throughout the body

fibrous connective tissue

dense with collagenous fibers, found in tendons, which attach muscles to bones and in ligaments, which connect bones at joints


has a liquid extracelluar matrix called plasma, which consists of water, salts, and dissolved proteins. Suspended in plasma are erythocyes, leukocytes and cell fragments (platelets). Red cells carry oxygen, white cells function in defense, and platelets aid in blood clotting

adipose tissue

specialized loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout the matrix. Pads and insulates the body and stores fuel as fat molecules. Each cell contains a large fat droplet that swells when fat is stored and shrinks when the body uses that fat as fuel.


contains collagenous fibers embed in a rubbery protein-carb complex called chondroitin sulfate. Cells called chondrocytes secrete the collagen and chondroitin sulfate, which together make a strong yet flexible support material


mineralized connective tissue; bone forming cells called osteoblasts deposit a matrix of collagen. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions combine into a hard material within the matrix. The microscopic structure of hard mammilian bone has repeating units called osteons.

smooth muscle

lack straiations, found in walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and other internal organs. Cells are spindle shaped; responsible for involuntary activities

cardiac muscle

forms contractile wall of the heart; striated and has similar contractile properties as skeletal muscle; has fibers that interconnect via intercalated disks, which relay signals from cell to cell and help synchronize heart contraction

muscle tissue

responsible for nearly all movement; muscle cells have filaments containing the proteins actin and myosin, which help muscles contract




non striated
not branched
Ex: stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, blood vessels


muscles around bones
not branched

skeletal muscle

attached to bones by tendons, responsible for voluntary movements; has bundles of long cells called muscle fibers

nervous tissue

functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information, contains neurons and glial cells


basic units of the nervous system, receives nerve impulses from other neurons via its cell body and multiple extensions called dendrites; transmit impulses to neurons, muscles, other cells via extensions called the axons, which are bundled together in nerves


various types nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons, and in some cases, modulate neuron function
ex: ependemal, schwann, astrocytes, microglia cells, oligodendro

transitional epithelial

dome shaped, stretchy
Ex: urinary bladder

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