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Augustas

Rome's first emperor

Citizens

The people who could participate in the government

Aqueducts

Human made channels that carried water from distant mountain ranges into Rome or other cities

Diocletian

He took power in the late 200s

Constantine

He was the emperor after Diocletian left power and he reunited the two halves of the Roman empire for a short period

Clovis

He was the king of the Franks by the 480s. He had built a huge kingdom in Gaul. He was also one of the most powerful of all the German kings

Attila

He was the leader of the Huns and he was a brilliant leader and a scary enemy

Corruption

The decay of peoples value

Justinian

He was an emperor who ruled from 527 to 565 and reuniting the empire was his passion

Theodora

Was the husband of Justinian and helped him make good choices

Byzantine Empire

The society that developed in the eastern Roman empireafter the west fell was called __________

Mosaics

Pictures made with pieces of colored stone or glass

Eurasia

The landmass that include both Europe and Asia

Topography

Refers to the shape and elevation of the land in a region

Middle Ages

A period lasted about 500 to about 1500

Medieval

Another name for the middle ages

Patrick

He was the first misionaries to travel to northern Europe

Monks

Were religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities

Monasteries

Communities of monks

Benedict

Most European monasteries followed a set of rules created in the early 500s by an Italian monk

Charlemagne

He was a brilliant warrior and a very strong king.

Knights

Warriors who fought on horse back

Vassal

A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land.

Feudalism

Historians call this system of promises that governed the relationship between lords and vassals

William the Conqueror

In 1066 he and his knights sailed to England and defeated the english king and he became king.

Manor

The large estate owned by a knight or lord was _________

Serfs

workers who were tied to the landon which they lived

Eleanor of Aquitaine

A french women who had great political power.

Chivalry

Europeans called their code of honorable behavior for knights.

Haiku

A short three-lined poems of 17 syllables that describes nature scenes.

Excommunicate

Casted out of the church

Pope Gregory VII

In 1073a new pope came to power in Rome

Emperor Henry IV

Trouble arose when Gregory disapproved of a bishop chosen by the whole Roman

Crusades

Were a long series of wars between Christians and muslims in the Southwest Asia

Holy Land

The place where jesus had lived, preached, and died.

Pope Urban II

The Pope of the Roman Catholic church

King Richard I

He was the only one that stayed in the holy land

Saladin

The leader of the muslim forces. He was a brilliant leader.

Clergy

Church officials

Religious Order

Is a group of people who didicate their lives to religion and follow common rules.

Francis of Assisi

Franciscans named for their founders Dominic de Guzman and____________

Friars

People who belonged to religious order but lived and worked among the general public

Thomas Aquinas

Is the Dominican philosopher

Natural Law

A law governed how the world operated and its called _____________

Magna Carta

This document listing rights that the king could not ignore

Parliament

In time the councildeveloped into __________ the law making body that governs England today

Hundred Years' War

A long conflict between England and France that came to be called ___________

Joan of Arc

Is a pheasent girl that rallied the french troops

Black Death

A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351

Hershey

Religious ideas that opposed accepted the church teaching are called ______________

Reconquista

Efforts to retake Spain from the Moors

King Ferdinand

He married Queen isabella in 1469 and later became king

Queen Isabella

Married Ferdinand in 1469 and later became queen

Spanish Inquisition

An organization of priests that look for and punish anyone in spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion

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