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AP Human Geo Rubenstein

Habit

A repetitive act of a particular INDIVIDUAL

Custom

A repetitive act of a GROUP to the point htat it becomes a characteristic of that group.

Folk Culture

Traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas.

Popular Culture

Found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain customs despite difference in other personal characteristics.

Homogeneous

Similar: the same in structure

Heterogeneous

Unlike:differing in structure

Taboo

A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom

Dowry

A "gift" from the family of a bride to the family of a groom as a sign of respect. In some societies, a requirement for a good marriage

Imperialism

the policy of seeking to dominate the affairs of weaker countries; to establish an empire

Demography

Study of population characteristics

Ecumene

Portion of earth occupied by permanent human settlement

CBR

acronym for # of live births per 1000 in population

Crude Birth Rate

what acronym CBR stands for

CDR

acronym for # of deaths per 1000 of population

Crude Death Rate

Term that "CDR" as an acronym stands for

NIR

acronym for % by which a population grows in a year, CBR minus CDR

Natural Increase Rate

Term that "NIR" as an acronym stands for

Doubling Time

Number of years needed to double a population

TFR

Average number of children a woman will have in her lifetime

Total Fertility Rate

Term that "TFR" as an acronym stands for

IMR

Annual number of infant deaths under one year of age

Infant Mortality Rate

Term that "IMR" as an acronym stands for

Life Expectancy

Measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current levels.

Demographic Transition

Change in a society's population from a condition of high CBR/CDR to a condition of low CBR/CDR

Agricultural Revolution

1st one of these was when humans domesticated plants and animals instead of hunting and gathering; about 10,000 years ago

Industrial Revolution

Improvement in Industrial technology that transformed society (more from agriculture to industry); about 200 years ago

Medical Revolution

Improved medical technology and practices that changed world societies; about 50 years ago

ZPG

Acronym for the decline of total fetility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero

Zero Population Growth

Term that "ZPG", as an acronym, stands for

Population Pyramid

A bar graph that displays a country's population by age and gender; shape is controlled by CBR

Dependency Ratio

Number of people who are too young/too old COMPARED to those who are at the right age to work.

Sex Ratio

Number of males per 100 females in a population

Overpopulation

When population exceeds available resources

Contraceptives

Devices or Medicines to reduce pregnancy/birth rates (aka Birth Control)

Epidemiology

Branch of medical science concerned with deseases

Pandemic

Disease that occurs over a wide region and impacts a very high proportion of the population

Malthus

Last name of man who first discussed the possibility that population could outgrow food supply

Arithmetic

Type of density; The number of people living in a given unit of area or the total population divided by the total land area

Baby Boom

A large group born in the US between 1946 and 1964, just after WWII

Carrying Capacity

The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support

Neo-Malthusian

Someone who believes that Malthus was correct and that we will run out of various resources not just food; often an advocate of population control programs.

Physiologic

Type of density that shows a ratio of total population divided by the total of arable land

Agricultural

Type of density that shows a ratio of the total number of farmers divided by the total arable land.

Arable

Synonym for "Farmable"

Population Clusters

East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Western Europe are the 4 ________ _______.

Acculturation

the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture

Migration

Permanent move to a new location

Emigration

Migration out of a location. Also known as out-migration

Immigration

Migration into a location. Also known as in-migration

Net Migration

The difference between the number of in-migration and the number of out-migration in a country.

Internal Migration

permanent move with the same country

International Migration

permanent movement from one country to another

Interregional Migration

Movement from one region of a country to another

Intraregional Migration

Movement within one (the same) region of a country

voluntary Migration

Migrants CHOOSE to move usually for economic reasons

forced migration

Migrants are compelled to move by cultural factors. Example: Slavery

Chain Migration

Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same ethnic group have previously migrated there

Migration Transition

Changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic Transition

Push Factor

Induces people to move OUT of their present location

Pull Factor

Induces people to move TO a new location

Refugees

Forced migrants because of fear of persecution and /or death.

Floodplain

area subject to flooding during a specific period of time.

Intervening Obstacle

Environmental/Cultural feature that hinders migration.

Undocumented Immigrants

People who enter a country without permission.

Quotas

Limit on the number of people who may immigrate to the US during a one year period.

Brain Drain

Large Scale out-migration by well-educated people.

Guest Workers

Citizens of poorer countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East

Counter Urbanization

Net Migration from urban to rural areas.

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