Ch. 2 Life Processes R. Boyle

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nutrition

the process by which the body takes in and uses food

transport

to carry or move from one place to another

respiration

the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain

excretion

the process by which wastes are removed from the body

adaptations

the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments

photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

cholorphyll

green pigment that captures light energy for photosynthesis

chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

thykaloids

membrane discs containing plant pigments; coin-like structures

grana

stacks of thylakoids

stroma

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

carotene

has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

stomata

the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

palisade layer

the layer of cells in a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs

intercellular digestion

proces in which protozoans digest tthei r food. Lyosomes enclose themeselves arounda food particle and release digestive enzymes. Unusuable products are taken out of the vaucole

extracellular digestion

digestion that takes place outside of the cell

psuedopods

extensions of cytoplasm for movement and feeding

phagocytosis

process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell

equilibrium

a state of balance

pinocytosis

process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment

circulation

Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.

fermentation

process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen

cyclosis

streaming movement within cell that allows for transport in the cytoplasm

anaerobic respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

aerobic respiration

Respiration that requires oxygen

hemoglobin

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

limiting factors

Conditions in the environment that put limits on where an organism can live

climax community

a stable mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time

abiotic

non-living

succession

the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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