anatomy eye an ear

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special senses

what allows the body to react to the environment

sight taste smell hearing balance maintenance

special senses are

eye

organ that controls sight

recieves light rays and transmits impluses from rays to optic nerve

what does the eye do

eyelids and lashes bony socket

what protects the eye

lacrimal glands

what produces tears and miostens and cleanses the eye

conjunctiva (provides additional protection and lubrication

a mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the front of the eye

3layers

how many layers are there to the eye

sclera white of the eye

outermost layer of the eye tough connective tisssue maintains shape of the eye

extrinsic muscles (attached to outside of sclera

responsible for moving eye within socket

cornea

circular transparent part of the front of the sclera

allows light rays to enter eye

what does the cornea do

choroid coat (interlaced with blood vessels that nourish the eye

middle layer of the eye

retina (layers of nerve cells)

inner most layer of the eye

transmits light impulses to optic nerve

what does the retina do

cones and rods

what are two special cells of the retina

cones

sensitive to color used mostly for vision in the light

fovea centralis (back surface of the retina) (sharpest vision here)

where are cones located

rods

vision in the dark

iris

colored part of the eye located behind the cornea on the front of the choroid coat

pupil

opening in center of iris

2muscles

iris contains what to control size and regulate the amount of light entering the eye

lens

circular structure located behind pupil and suspended in position by ligaments

refracts (bends) the light rays so the rays focus on the retina

what does the lens do

aqueous humor (clear watery fluid)

what fills the space between the cornea and iris

helps maintain forward curvature of eyeball and refracts light rays

what does the aqueous humor do

vitreous humor

fill area behind lens helps maintain shape of eyeball and refracts lightrays

cornes aqueous humor pupil lens vtreous humor

when light rays enter the eye what parts do they pass throuogh

rods and cones

light rays are picked up in the retina by

nerve impluses and transmitted by optic nerve to optical lobe of the cerebrum

cones and rods change light rays to what

lazy eye early childhood

what is amblyopia

abnormal shape or curvature of the cornea light rays focus on multiple areas of the retina

astigmatism

cataract (sight restored by surgical removal of lens)

normally clear lens becomes cloudy or opaque (aging)

conjuntivitis (pink eye)

inflamation of the conjuncitiva (bacterium or virus)

Glaucoma

increased intraocular pressusre caused by excess aqueous humor (after 40) leads to blindness

hyperopia

farsightedness light rays not refracted sharply enouogh and image foucues behind retina

marcula

center and most sensitive section of the retina

macular degeneration (age related)most common type dry macul degeneration

disease of the marcula caused by damage to the blood vessels that nouorish the retina

dry macul degeneration

fatty deposits decrease blood supply to retina

wet macul degeneration

abnormal growth of blood vesssels leak blood and fluids that damage retina

myopia (corrected by concave lenes or by surgical procedure called radial keratotomy small incision made to flatten cornea

nearsightedness occurs when light rays are refracted too sharply and the image focuces in front of the retina

presbyopia normal ageing corrective lenes

farsightedness caused by loss of lens elasticity light rays focus behind the retina

strabismus cover good eye corrective lenses or surgery on the muscles that move the eye

disorder in which the eyes do not nove or focus together

ear transmits impluses from aound waves to auditory nerve (vestibulocochlear)

organ that controls hearing and balance

3main sections outer middle an inner

how many sections is the ear divided into and what are they callled

pinna or auricle pinna is elastic cartilage covered by skin

what is the outer part of the ear called and what is it

a canal or tube called the auditory canal (external auditory meatus)

pinna or auricle leads to what

a wax that protects the ear

what is the cerumen

eardrum or tympanic membrane

sound waves travel through the auditory canal untill they reach the

tympanic membrane it vibrates when sound waves hit it and transmits the sound waves to middle ear

what seperates the outer ear from the inner ear and what does it do

a small space or cavity in the temporal bone contains 3 small bones called ossicles

what is the middle ear and what does it contain

malleus incus and the stapes they are connected and transmit sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

name the 3 small bones of the middle ear and what they do

eustachian tube

the middle ear is connected to the pharynx or throat by what

allows air to enter middle ear and helps equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane

what does the eustachian tube do

inner ear

what is the most complex portion of the ear

a membrane called the oval window

what seperates the inner ear from the middle ear

vestibule acts as an entrance to the two other parts of the inner ear

what is the frist section of the inner ear and what does it so

cochlea delicate hairlike cells which compose the organ of corti

shaped like a snail's shell and what does it contain

a receptor of sound waves it transmits the impluses from sound waves to the auditory nerve where they are interperted as hearing

what is the organ of corti and what does it do

auditory nerve

what carries the impluses to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum

semicircular canals

located in inner ear contain liquid and delicate hairlike cells theat bend when liquid moves with head and body movements

sense of balance and equilibrium

impluses sent from semicucular canals to the cerebellum of the brain help to maintain what

conductive and sensory

what are two kinds of hearing loss

conductive hearing loss treatment surgery or hearing aids

sound waves are not conducted to inner ear caused by wax forgein body otosclerosis or ruptured tympanic membrane

sensory hearing loss usually cannot be corrected but cochlear implants can improve hearing loss

damage to inner ear or auditory nerve

meniere's disease

collection of fluid in the labyrinth of the inner ear and a degeneration of the hair cells in the cochlea vestibule symptoms vertigo tinnitus naussea vomiting loss of balance

otitis externa

inflamation of the external auditory canal caused by pathogenic organism such as bacterium or viris swimmer's ear

otitis media myringotomy incicion of tsypanic membrane tubes insserted to relieve pressure and allow fluid to drain

inflamation or infection of middle ear caused by bacterium or viris frently follows sore throat (organisms can enter middle ear through eustachian tube

otosclerosis surgical removal of sstapes and insertion of artifical stapes corrects condition

stapes become immoble causing conductive hearing loss symptom gradule hearing loss tinnitus at times vertigo

a mass of muscle tissue with porojections called papillae

what is the tongue

contain taste buds that are simulated by foods moistened by saliva

what are papillae

sweet and salty (tip of tongue) sour (side of tongue) bitter ( back of tongue)

what are the 4 main tastes and where are they located

smell

what is taste influenced by

nose

what is the organ of smell

olfactory receptors located in the upper part of nasal cavity

what makes the sense of smell possible

6000

how many different smells can the nose detect

yes

is the sense of smell more sensitive than taste

located throughout the body

general sense receptors for pressure heat cold touch and pain

each receptor recieves only one type of sense

how many sense's does a receptor detect

yes

does the skin have special receptors for both heat and cold

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