Marine Science Unit 6: Marine Invertebrates

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Kingdom Animalia

Organisms in this kingdom are all multicellular, have cells without cell walls and are all heterotrophic

Cambrian

Geologic time period when most invertebrate animal phyla appeared on Earth; occurred approximately 540 million years ago

Phylum Arthropoda

Phylum that includes crabs, shrimp, sea spiders, etc

Phylum Cnidaria

Phylum that includes jellyfishes, corals, sea anemones, and hydroids

Phylum Echinodermata

Phylum that includes seastars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and feather stars

Phylum Molluska

Phylum that includes clams, snails, nudibranchs, squids and octopuses

Phylum Porifera

Phylum that includes sponges

Blastula

A hollow sphere of cells formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.

Gastrula

The second stage in embryonic development in which the ectoderm, endoderm, and blastopore are established either by folding in of the blastula

Protostome

Animal whose blastopore becomes the mouth during development

Deuterostome

Animal whose blastopore becomes the anis during development (includes echinoderms and chordates)

Dorsal

Top or back of a bilateral animal

Ventral

Bottom or belly side of a bilateral animal

Anterior

Head region of a bilateral animal

Posterior

Tail region of a bilateral animal

Choanocytes

Flagellated cells within sponges that move water in and out of the animal

Sponges

Animal that lacks true tissue layers

Class Calcarea

Sponges with calcium spicules

Class Hexactinellida

Sponges with silica or glass spicules

Class Desmospongiae

Sponges with flexible sponging fibers

Cnidocytes

Stinging cells found only in cnidarians

Polyp

Sessile (nonmoving) body form of a cnidarian (anemone is an example)

Medusa

Motile (free moving) body form of a cnidarian (jellyfish is an example)

Epidermis

Outer tissue layer of a cnidarian

Gastrodermis

Inner tissue layer of a cnidarian

Class Anthozoa

Cnidarian class that includes sea anemones and corals

Class Scyphozoa

Cnidarian class that includes true jellyfish

Class Hydrozoa

Cnidarian class that includes hydroids

Class Cubozoa

Cnidarian class that includes box jellies

Phylum Annelida

Phylum that includes segmented worms

Class Gastropoda

Mollusk class that includes snails, slugs and nudibranchs

Class Bivalvia

Mollusk class that includes clams, oysters, and scallops

Class Cephalopoda

Mollusk class that includes squids and octopuses

Class Polyplacophora

Mollusk class that includes chitons

Mantle

Main body of a squid; responsible for making its shell (pen)

Tentacles

Two longer appendages of a squid

Arms

Eight shorter appendages of a squid

Siphon

Tube used by squids for jet propulsion

Phylum Arthropoda

Members of this animal phylum have segmented bodies, a chitinous exoskeleton, and jointed appendages

Chitin

Main component of the arthropod exoskeleton

Molting

Process where an arthropod sheds its exoskeleton in order to grow

Uropod

Tail fin of a crayfish

Telson

Middle part of a crayfish's tail

Abdomen

Muscular tail of a crayfish

Carapace

Shell that covers the body and head of a crayfish

Subphylum Crustacea

Arthropod subphylum that includes crabs, lobsters, and shrimp

Ventral Nerve Cord

Main feature of the arthropod nervous system

Pentamerous Radial Symmetry

Body symmetry exhibited by adult echinoderms

Phylum Echinodermata

Animal phylum that as the strongest ability to regenerate lost body parts

Water Vascular System

System of water filled canals used by echinoderms to move

Class Asteroidea

Echinoderm class that includes seastars

Class Echinoidea

Echinoderm class that includes sea urchins and sand dollars

Class Holothuroidea

Echinoderm class that includes sea cucumbers

Class Crinoidea

Echinoderm class that includes feather stars and sea lilies

Class Ophiuroidea

Echinoderm class that includes brittle stars

Phylum Chordata

Members of this animal phylum all possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord and pharyngeal gills slits at some point during their development

Subphylum Urochordata

Chordate subphylum that includes tunicates

Subphylum Cephalochordata

Chordate subphylum that includes lancelets

Subphylum Vertebrata

Chordate subphylum that includes animals with a backbone

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