Nutrition exam 1

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glycemic index

The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin
response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scale

lanugo

hair anorxia

type 2 diabetes

. the reduced blood circulation and compromised healing

NHANES

emerging trends for each decade nation

10 state survey

trends by area of the states

supplemental childrens

looks at food insecurity for children; shows hunger in america

national food conume study

how we eat/what we eat

anthropometry

measurement of proper growth compared to standards

ratio of waist to hips

hips smaller than waist

BMI

measure of anthropometrey

DEXA

dual exray absorptiometry= most accurate measure of BMI

2 measures of nutritional status

biochemical and clinical

PEM

no hair color because of lack of protein

HIV

thrush

Annorexia

lanugo

bulimia

decay of teeth

cillia

up surface area

mitochondria

power house of cell

genes x4

instruction for building proteins
handling of nutrients
complete set in each cell
cntrol function of proteins

intracellular fluid

cell reactions here,
hold cell shape

kidney

reg h20 content, filter 300x/day

hormones

signal oragan activity, directly into blood by glands; effects nutrition eg in pregnancy

pancreas

insulin and glycogen;Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients
Releases bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid that enters small intestine

hypothal

regulate hunger thirst, sleep and wake cycles

fight or flight

metab up, digest down; heart disease if in constant state

antigen

challenge to immune system

phagocytes

consume invadors

lymphocytes

t cells- mark invadors
b cells attack cells marked by b cells

chronic inflamation

diet can change

length digestive tract

26 ft

salivary gland

Donate a starch-digesting enzyme (carbs)
Donate a trace of fat-digesting enzyme (important to infants)
1 min in mouth

liver

Manufactures bile, a detergent-like substance that facilitates digestion of fats

stomach

Adds hjydorchloric acid, enzymes, and fluid
Churns, mixes, and grinds
food to a liquid mass;
1-2 hours here

gall bladder

Stores bile until needed

small intestine

Secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein
Cells lining intestine absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
inputs from pancreas and gallbladder
7-8 hours

lg intestine

Reabsorbs water and minerals
Passes waste (fiber, bacteria, any unabsorbed nutrients) and some
water to rectum
12-14

saliva

starches and fat, health of teeth

monosacharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose

disacharides

Lactose, maltose, and sucrose

sucrose

glucose and fructose

maltose

glucose x2

lactase

glucose and galactose

polysacharides

Starch
Plant's storage form of glucose
Glycogen
Fiber

soluble fiber

readily ferment

ketosis

break down of protien ie muscle when low on fat

glucose

basic carb unit 4 energy

insulin

take glucose form blood

type 1 dibetes

5-10% autoimmune disease attacking pancrease leading to inable to produce insuline
young kids of average body weight

why recommend fibers x8

Reduced risk of heart disease
Reduced risk of hypertension
Reduced risk of diabetes
Reduced risk of bowel disease
Promotion of healthy body weight
blood glucose control
lower cholestoral
reduce Constipation, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, diverticulosis
satiety

diverticula

outpockits of gastric mucosa

apendicitis

swelling apendix

dietary fiber importance

Increases food volume without increasing caloric content, providing satiety May reduce appetite
Attracts water and forms a viscous gel during digestion, slowing the emptying of the stomach and intestinal transit, shielding carbohydrates from enzymes, and delaying absorption of glucose[28] Lowers variance in blood sugar levels
Lowers total and LDL cholesterol Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease
Regulates blood sugar May reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[29]
Speeds the passage of foods through the digestive system Facilitates regular defecation
Adds bulk to the stool Alleviates constipation
Balances intestinal pH[30] and stimulates intestinal fermentation production of short-chain fatty acids May reduce risk of colorectal cancer[31]

dri fiber

20-35 grams of fiber daily
Based on energy needs, age, and gender

kernal parts

Germ
Endosperm
Bran
Husk

whole grains

unrefined grains that haven't had their bran and germ removed by milling

digestion starch

Begins in the mouth
Splits starch into maltose
Digestion ceases in the stomach
Digestion resumes in small intestine
Pancreas

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