We tend to go on a high level and mess up; we go to lower identification.....
Higher identification; more emotions that can be uplifting. Negative emotions= going to lower levels
People are trained for lower levels. Ex. Soldiers in military
the tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make internal attributions.
Attributions (Internal vs. External)
the casual explanation people giver their own and others' behaviors, and for events in general
• External attribution:
o Consensus is high, everyone has the same reaction
o Consistency is high, Every time this situation occurs, people have the same reaction
o Distinctiveness is high, Person doesn't have the same reaction to other similar situations
• Internal: Consistency is high (every time he eats a ghost chile he feels crazy), low distinctiveness (the person reacts the same way to all similar situation) consensus should be low (nobody has the same reaction)
Processes that do not require attention; they can often be performed along with other tasks without interference.
• Use prior knowledge/schemas
• Attribution Strategies (Internal or External attributions we make)
• Cognitive Shortcuts
o Heuristics Rules of thumb
Tendency for people to make judgments of frequency on the basis of how easily examples come to mind.
Base rate neglect
the tendency to ignore or underuse base rate information and instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged
Better than average effect
A cognitive bias that causes people to overestimate their positive qualities and abilities and to underestimate their negative qualities, relative to others
Also called illusory superiority.
Boundary Conditions: Conditions under which a psychological effect occurs or doesn't work.
Ex: Implicit attitudes. When making a fast decision; implicit attitudes come up and don't when they have more time to think
A term used to describe people's reluctance to do much extra thinking.
an actor that is part of the experiment and they will know the aim of the study
the tendency to see an event as more likely as it becomes more specific because it is joined with elements that seem similar to events that are likely. this fallacy usually is accompanied by the Representative heuristic.
how people understand or think about the situation as they interpret it.
Processes that require attention; it is often difficult to carry out more than one controlled process at a time.
Correlational vs. experimental research
A technique used to measure the likelihood of two behaviors relating to each other. (Correlational method)
The experimental method involves manipulating one variable to determine if changes in one variable cause changes in another variable. This method relies on controlled methods, random assignment and the manipulation of variables to test a hypothesis.
any aspect of a study used to disguise the true purpose of a study and insure an unbiased, "natural" response
information/feedback people tell you
Conscious versus unconscious thinking.
An effect that comes from exerting large amounts of self-control.
Ex. Binge eating after a diet, eating/smoking after a long day of work.
the finding that items gain in value to the person who owns them
Experimental vs. Mundane Realism
Experimental realism refers to whether
participants get so caught up in the procedures that they forget they are in an experiment (important for determining
whether the results obtained in the experiment can be applied to the real world).
• Mundane realism refers to whether the setting and research procedures physically resemble the real world.
Taking experimental results and putting into new world. watching out for behaviors and how they occur, not the percentage.
Fundamental attribution error
Also called the Correspondence Bias; the tendency for observers to attribute to attribute other people's behavior to internal or dispositional causes and to downplay situational causes.
Illusion of control
the false belief that one can influence certain events, especially at random or chance ones
Independent vs. dependent variables
An independant variable is the variable which you change in an experiment. Note you can only have 1 variable that can change in an experiment and more than one independent variable will result in an unfair experiment.
A dependent variable is the measure of the independent variable. Therefore it depends on the independent variable.
The effort to be seen as likeable through methods such as:
Showing interests in their interest
Present yourselves modestly
Agreeing with others' opinions
the process by which a person examines the contents of his or her mind and mental states
Kelley's Attribution Model
principle that states that for something to be the cause of a behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when the behavior does not occur. Kelley proposed that people use three types of covariation information.
Consensus, Consistency and Disntintiveness
Limits of self-knowledge
People usually have insight to explain actions
We do not always have access to the true causes of our behavior. But we think we do most the time
The idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others.
Also called reflected appraisal.
Mortality salience hypothesis
When reminded of death, they will use various terror management mechanisms to rid death of thoughts from the mind to return to a composed psychological state. State.
Seeing that culture is vital to ward off death anxiety people should defend their worldwide vies after mortality salience (worldview defense)
Defense can involve:
criticizing disparate worldviews
Praising others who uphold it.
observable operations, procedures, and measurements that are based on the independent and dependent variables
the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with rewards
Ex: Getting paid for a job.
The tendency for plans to be overly optimistic because the planner fails to allow for unexpected problems.
Power of the Situation
The ideal that the social context of a situation can change how a person acts in order to be accepted.
planting or activating an idea in someone's mind
"Wakening of associations"
Random assignment vs. Random Selection
Random assignment refers to the use of chance procedures in experiments to ensure that each participant has the same opportunity to be assigned to any given group.
Random selection is a process of gathering a representative sample for the study.
The idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others.
Also called the looking-glass self.
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case.
Experimental and Correlational Method
Knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept, its attributes and its relationships to other concepts.
Knowledge structures that define situations and guide behavior
the process by which a person can selectively pick out one message from a mixture of messages occurring simultaneously
Attention directed at the self.
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to reconcile oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals
The state of emotion one has about themselves and their view of the world. Evaluation of one self
Global self-esteem (trait self-esteem"); Over the course of their life
State self-esteem (moment to moment fluctuation)
Self-evaluations (Domain-Specific Self-Esteem)
Putting obstacles in the way of one's performance so that anticipated or possible failure can be blamed on the obstacle instead of the lack of ability.
the theory that people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling.
Any behavior that seeks convey some image of the self or some information about the self to other people.
A form of claiming competence
Your role in a story is more important than it actually was.
Try to tell really good stories
• Using the trappings of Competence
o Cues that suggest that their competent.
o "Dress for success"
o The commodities we have
• Making Excuses or Claiming Obstacles(Self-Handicapping)
o When people set themselves up to fail, they can blame the failure they set up and give them an excuse. To shield you from negative result.
o Self-handicapping can be a win-win.
o Examples: Classmates finding excuses like not going to class, doing reading
The self's capacity to alter its own responses; self-control.
the process people use to control and change their thoughts, feelings and behaviors. (Resisting temptation)
The finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information
a pattern in which people claim credit for success but deny blame for failure
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which you can imagine (or mentally simulate) it
How people think about themselves and the social world.
a movement in social psychology that began in the 1970s that focused on
thoughts about people and about social relationships.
examining the difference between oneself and another person
Objective comparisons without social context
.Possible through Socialization, Introspection, reflected
the study of how think, act and feel. (To negative feedback)
Social Psychology vs. Personality Psychology
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people affect and are affected by others.
Personality psychology focuses on important differences between individuals, as well as inner processes.
Socialization is 'the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained through Family, Friends, and Culture
A measure of how desirable one would be to other people.
Sources of self-knowledge
o People's reaction to us.
o Objective feedback (IQ, SAT)
o Introspection (reflection)
o Temporal comparisons (past comparisons)
o Social Comparisons..
o Objective comparisons without social context
Socialization, Introspection, reflected appraisal/
A standard measure of effortful control over responses, requiring participants to identify the color of a ward(which may name a different color)
In decision making, the greater weight given to the present over the future.
Terror Management theory
Terror Management Theory: Function of self-esteem is to manage death-related anxiety
• Humans are unique in awareness of mortality
• Death is potential for anxiety
• Culture develops to provide meaning ; writing a novel, having a child
• Needing to keep faith
The self-regulation feedback loop of Test, Operate, Test, Exit. Look at diagram
Upward vs. downward comparison
Comparing yourself to people better than you..Reduces self-esteem and makes you feel bad
Comparing yourself to people worse off than you. Raises self-esteem.
The image of the self that is currently active in the person's thoughts
A tendency to experience automatic, intrusive thoughts about a goal whose pursuit has been interrupted.