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According to Robert Merton, ___ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
a.latent functions
b.manifest dysfunctions
c.manifest functions
d. latent dysfunctions

c. manifest functions

true or false
Herbert Spencer believed the most capable and intelligent members of society would survive while the weak and "less fit" would die, thus improving society, in a master plan that he called "survival of the fittest."

True

True or False
Sociologists who use the functionalist perspective stress how industrialization and urbanization have undermined the traditional functions of the family.

True

True or False
Sociologist have always agreed that the most important goal of sociology is to generate social change.

False

Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ____.
a. culture
b. tradition
c. science
d. experience

a. culture

Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of _____
a. high culture
b. non-material culture
c. material culture
d. low culture

c. material culture

Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, "The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." What does this imply about culture?
a. culture is taken for granted by member if society who share it
b. there is only one acceptable method of doing particular job
c. every culture establishes firm standards by which it functions
d. water is symbolic and has nothing to do with the statement

a. culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it

In America, why is Spanish, rather than English, continuously spoken from generation to generation, with greater commitment than any other non- English speaking language.
a. Spanish is spoken worldwide much more commonly than English
b. English is one of the most difficult languages to learn
c. For many Spanish speakers, learning English violates the allegiance to their native countries.
d. there is a constant influx of new Hispanic immigrants into the U.S.

d. There is a constant influx of new Hispanic immigrants into the U.S.

Harry is in the campus dinning hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather then a veggie burger. Harvey, a fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Horace considers earning an "A" in a course for superior that a "C" or even a "B".
a.they all practicing ethnocentrism in their daily decision making
b.They are all employed the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
c. They are expressing their own values in the choices they make

c. They are expressing their own values in the choices they make

Sociologist use the concept of "norms" to describe _.
a. Standards by which people define what is socially desirable
b. expressions of disapproval for violation socially acceptable behavior
c. ideas about what is true or false
d Expectations or rules of behavior that develops from values

d. Expectations or rules of behavior that develops from values

Receiving the Medal of Honer and making the Dean's List are both examples of __.
a. Value contradictions
b. folkways
c. positive sanctions
d. value clusters

c. positive sanctions

Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they attend in Philadelphia. this year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the "Girls Gone Wild" video. Which statement best describes the probable reason behind the behavior of Clarisse and Cindy?
a. Clarisse and Cindy unintentionally broke a taboo due to stress, authoritarianism, and strict regime involved in Christina education
b. Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday, which permitted them to "let their hair down
c. Clarisse and Cindy were evil spirited at heart and their true behavior surfaced in Cancun
d. Clarisse pushed Cindy, or Cindy pushed Clarisse, into violating their Christian norms deciding to " go wild"

b. Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday, which permitted them to "let their hair down

When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a _____
a. counterculture
b. example of cultural relativism
c. example of cultural diffusion
d. subculture

d. subculture

People from all walks of life, races, and ethnic groups participate in the U.S. legislative process. In view of this which term best describes American society?
a. America is polytheistic
b. America is a society of subcultures and countercultures
c. America is a pluralistic society
d. America is based on the principles of oligarchy

c. America is a pluralistic society

The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was ____.
a. Micheal Burawoy
b. Edward Wilson
c. Robin Williams
d. John Jacob Natzke

c. Robin Williams

The author added three values to the original list of ten core values that Robin Williams identified as the most common in American society. Which of the following is NOT one of the three values added.
a. education
b. religiosity
c. equality
d. romantic love

c. equality

The emerging tools and skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called _____.
a. Non material culture
b. cultural leg
c. sociocultural evolution
d. new technology

d. new technology

The term "cultural lag", referring to the varying __ among elemental withing cultures was coined by sociologist ___.
a. countercultures; Talcott Parsons
b. subcultures; Douglas Massey
c. rates of change; William Ogburn
d. types of symbols; Edward Wilson

c. rates of change; William Ogburn

The spread of cultural characteristics form one group to another refers to__.
a.folkways
b. cultural leveling
c. values
d.cultural universals

b. cultural leveling

Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or pizza, as well as chow mien, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, felafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of __.
a. cultural absolution
b. cultural discovery
c. cultural diffusion
d. cultural innovation

c. cultural diffusion

McDonald's sells Quarter Pounders in Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, Berlin, and practically every other major city in the world. Mickey Mouse and Fred Flintstone are among the most popular cartoon figures in Mexico. this are examples of ___.
a. cultural leveling
b. cultural folkways
c. cultural universals
d. value clusters

a. cultural leveling

True and False
a group's way of thinking, including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world, is classified as material culture.

False

True and False
Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us.

True

True and False
Language allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences.

True

True and False
A person receiving a positive sanction would be expected to maintain the behavior that he or she exhibited when receiving the sanction.

True

True and False
A person who professes a belief in freedom and equality, but also demonstrates behavior that is sexist and racist is involved in value contradiction.

True

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