meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future to meet their own needs
tunnel vision biases based on what we already know
elements, rock and mineral resources
carboniferous forests, coal, oil, gas
air, water, and space are needed
putting pressure into the earth to extract resources
short term daily changes in the global atmosphere
long term patterns in weather
shifts in earth orbit, every 100,000 years causes variation in energy reaching earth
Global Reflection and Re-Radiation
Earth and clouds reflect energy back into space, never gets to earth
Some clouds reflect radiation back into the atmosphere → cooling the earth
Others trap heat → warm the atmosphere
trap heat in the atmosphere
All factors that influence amount of heat that is retained or lost in the earth
Aerosols (negative forcing), carbon dioxide/ methane/ other gases are major forcing factors (positive forcing)
cells transport "stuff" carried by water and air
Pollutants produced in dense population areas are carried by the grasshopper effect to the poles (no where on earth has not been touched by our waste products)
move heat from north to south
the case for climate change
changes in global temperatures are consistent with greenhouse gas global warming predictions
Plants, Animals, Bacteria, Fungi, Protists
hierarchy of taxa
kingdom phylum class order genus species
Exotic species are not native to an ecosystem or geographic area and are often established purposefully or inadvertently by human activity.
fundamental principles of biomes
Classified by: climate, primary producers, growth patterns
aquatic biomes further classified by: salt or freshwater, rivers and streams vs. lakes and ponds, depth, proximity. Interactions
vary in productivity and resiliency
recognizable communities with specific characteristics
low precipitation , temperature is less of an issue (antarctica classified as a desert)
short intense growing season, migrant birds/mammals come for summer feeding
Plants are heavily pigmented from high UV levels, leathery leaves
experience both drought and hot/cold. Roots are deep to get stored water.
Conversion to farmland is common
Fire is an important ecological component- burns off rubbish, some plants cant germinate without exposure to fire
Fire suppression increases amount of kindling, when a fire does occur it is way more intense/destructive
human settlements, clear for agriculture, harvest for wood products and fuel
temperate deciduous forests
Less than 10% of the earth
Diversity is important in future of uncertainty
Rapidly being logged, people are economically challenged, rainforests are seen as opportunity.
biomes and climate change
Shifts in biomes can happen very quickly - as a result of climate change and road construction and fire control policies can happen within several decades
Greater biodiversity contributes to resiliency
defined by Salt or freshwater, depth, rivers/streams v. lakes and ponds, prevalence of algal growth forms
locally important in economics, politics, environmental effects
confining animals to one area, then moving them to a different area to prevent overgrazing
land use policy over time
govt designated "wilderness", removed protections for logging, oil etc... Obama moves to restore wilderness
new land uses
solar panels, new crops, biofeuls
the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part
benefits of biodiversity
drugs, food, ecological services
human caused species lost
consumption, pollution, overharvest
biodiversity hot spots
special places with which we must deal if we wish protect biodiversity. These are often in developing countries.
exponential population growth
Starting pops in new habitat
Unlimited resources Density independent
(no example of a population that can sustain this kind of infinite growth)
things begin to diverge, birth rates can't be maintained at the same level, death rates increase, population no longer grows as fast
comp. amongst members of the same species
• Shared requirement of a resource in limited supply
• Negative effects- increased mortality, decreased birthrate
short life expectancy, rapid growth, early reproduction, high reproductive effort ( insects, rodents, parasites)
long life expectancy, delayed reproduction, low reproductive effort and parental care (wolves, elephants, primates, humans)
habitat variables, physical factors determine the range of conditions an organism may occupy. Where you COULD live
place where you ACTUALLY live, other organisms may push you out of fundamental niches
in a biological community various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization thereby reducing direct competition
-strongest organisms get the best places
• Indirect effects- risk of predation redistributes animals in space and in time
• Often pushes animals in to sub-optimal habitats for growth, maturation, or reproduction
• Behavior effects - fish schooling- automatic protection (or herd/flock)
one animal/organism benefits - no harm to another
both species benefit
one species benefits while causing harm to another
food chain input
sunlight; drives everything
green plants, capture sun's energy
global average 2.8 children/woman.
Replacement rate 2.1 children/woman. Traditional cultures, 6-7 Max 25-30 in wealthy societies with wet-nursing, nannies.
Life tables show the numbers or proportions of organisms (here people) of different ages in a population.
(old + young non workers) / workers
too many old people/non workers for the population of workers to support
optimistic view of population growth/ Human ingenuity underlying technological advances and enterprise (economics) will overcome problems.
pessimistic view of population growth. belief that earth cannot accommodate booming population
Impact = population x affluence x technology
social, economic, religious pressures (anti abortion, male pride, welfare programs to help support )that encourage high birth rate
job satisfaction, leisure, sterilization infanticide-- discourage high birth rates
Materials produced naturally and as a result of human activities that affect the health and welfare of organisms, especially humans /Materials produced faster than the natural world's ability to absorb and/or treat them.
transportation of pollutants
air- as droplets, suspended particles
water- in solution, as suspended particles
discrete, identifiable, predictable sources of pollution
scattered, diffuse, less predictable sources of pollution
ex-Dust blowing, chemicals produced by forests , car pipes (human originating)
route of pollutants-Biological mechanisms
Common in water, sewage of humans and livestock. Infectious pathogens in air.
route of pollutants- physical mechanisms
Solid wastes. Heat.
route of pollutants- chemical mechanisms
Carcinogens. Neurotoxins. Mutagens. Endocrine disrupters.
effects of pollutants
dversely affects all organisms via inhalation, food, water, across skin. Primary - directly affect survival or health. Secondary -react with medium to become toxic or more toxic.
waste storage can degrade water and air
Exchange with the atmosphere, air pollution dissolves into the water
• Migration through the water layer
process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen
behavior surrounding risks
health risks that are caused by life style choices
Disease-poverty cycles - considered causal factor in political unrest, global violence, social instability, terrorism, drug trafficking and others.
food, living conditions, and healthcare are affected by poverty
ebola, HIV, sars
chemicals that interfere with the function of endocrine hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, etc.
directed attention fatigue
When directed attention becomes fatigued, reduced selectivity and inhibitory control that is central to information processing may result
Economy seeks the management of resources to efficiently meet human needs
individuals using their capital to produce the greatest benefit to themselves simultaneously promote goals of society.
Manufactured or built= (human-made tools, technology, infrastructure).
Natural = (goods and services provided by nature).
Human or cultural= (knowledge, experience, human enterprise, intangibles). Social capital =(shared values, trust, cooperative spirit, community organization).
$Genuine Progress Index
(add quality of life, distributional equity, natural resource depletion, environmental damage, value of unpaid labor.)
Human Development Index (add life expectancy, educational attainment, standard of living.)
Gender Development Index
(adjust for inequalities between men and women.)
consumption and fitness
greater consumption (more stuff/money)--> more power --> more successful
in group bias
diminsh beliefs posed by individuals outside of group
relying to heavily on a datum point or on one piece of info
evaluate strength of argument based on believability of its conclusion
seek/find evidence in support of beliefs while ignoring disconfirming evidence