established high standars of behavior and stern punishments for violators; civil laws regulated mostly everything such as wages dealings and relationships
an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
capital and largest city of the modern state of Israel
David's son who was a great king. He built massive project in Israel including the Great Temple. His project cost the people a lot of money in taxes causing a division in Israel.
1000 B.C., western side of fertile cresent, sailors and traders; became trading empire, developed 22 letter alphabet each letter stood for a sound, our alphabet is based on the (blank) alphabet
Ethnic group that settled in what is now Iran. They were rivals for control of Mesopotamia with the Greeks, and later the Arabs.
Cyrus the Great
A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world
official who ruled a state in the Persian Empire under Darius
This was very mountainous and difficult to travel through. Because of this, it lead to the creation of many independent city-states.
a seafaring and trading people that lived on the island of Crete from about 2000-1400 BC
a group of people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdoms
the capital and largest city of Greece
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
term for the roughly 200-year period in Greek history that followed the final collapse of the Mycenaean civilization in the 12th century BC.
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Site of the famous battle fought between the armies of Persia and the outnumbered Athenians. Athens was victorious and a messenger was sent to run the 26 miles back to the city with the news.
a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance
A city-state in ancient Greece
hoplite warfare- The strength of hoplites was shock combat. Primarily used because there was no formed military. (people provided their own equipment) The exact time when hoplitic warfare was developed is uncertain, the prevalent theory being that it was established sometime during the 8th or 7th century BC
A leader in ancient Greece who seized power by force rather than by inheriting it.
they were free people, but not citizens, typically craftsman and traders
full citizanes; each owns land worked by helots ; dedicated to duties as ruling class
Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
To counter the Delian League, Sparta and other enemies of other enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League
alliance of Greek city-states formed after the Persian War to protect Greece from future attacks by the Persians.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
made athenian assembly-law making body, granted some citizenship to some imms. and former slaves. set-up council of 500, introduced Ostracism
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece