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Test 2`

element

substance made of only one type of atom

atom

smallest part of an element

proton

positive charge, in nucleus

neutron

neutral charge, in nucleus

electron

negative charge, in shell around the nucleus

atomic #

# of protons in nucleus

atomic weight

# of protons and neutrons in nucleus

ionic bond

electron leaves one atom for another atom

covalent bond

2 atoms share electrons

synthesis reaction

bonds join 2 or more atoms/ molecules to make new compound

decomposition reaction

bonds are broken changing larger molecule to 2 or more smaller molecules

water

60% - 75% of the body

water - dissolves

solvent

water - prevents friction

lubricant

water - has a high heat capacity

changes temperature slowly

water compartments

ICF, ECF, plasma, lymph, interstitial, specialized fluids

ICF

intracellular fluid

intracellular fluid

water in cells 65% total body water

ECF

extracellular fluid

extracellular fluid

other 35% of water in plasma, lymph, interstitial and specialized

plasma

ECF, water in blood

lymph

ECF, water that has separated from blood

interstitial

ECF, tissue fluid in small spaces between cells

synovial fluid

specialized ECF in joints

cerebralspinal fluid

specialized ECF around brain and spine

aqueous humor

specialized ECF in the eye

21%

oxygen % of atmosphere?

cell respiration

uses oxygen to break down simple nutrients to release energy and create ATP

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, trapped energy for later use, all cell processes

glucose is broken down to

carbon dioxide, water, ATP and heat

hypoxemia

not enough energy in blood, leads to hypoxia

hypoxia

lack of oxygen in tissue, result of hypoxemia

acid

below 7 on pH scale, donates/ increases H ions

base

above 7 on pH scale, decreases H ions

body pH

7.35-7.45

buffer system

neutralizes strong base or acid

hydrogen

H

nitrogen

N

fluorine

F

magnesium

Mg

Phosphorus

P

chlorine

Cl

potassium

K

calcium

Ca

manganese

Mn

carbohydrates

CHO, monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (cane sugar), polysaccharides (starches), cellulose (fiber)

parastalsis

result of cellulose intake, contraction of muscles from the esophagus through the colon

Lipids

CHO fats

triglyceride

1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids

saturated fat

solid @room temp, bacon fat

unsaturated fat

liquid @room temp, canola oil

trans fats

hydrogenated fats, leads to atherosclerosis

atherosclerosis

cholesterol deposits in lining of arteries

proteins

CHON, made of amino acids

enzymes

proteins that are catalysts, end in -ase

DNA

genetic code

RNA

copies 1/2 DNA molecule to direct protein synthesis

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