2.3 Lymphatic System

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Lymphatic System

a widespread system of tissues and vessels. Its organs are not in continuous order but are scattered throughout the body , and it services almost all regions.

Functions of the lymphatic system

Fluid Balance
Protection from infection
Absorption of fats

Lymph

the fluid that the lymphatic system collects and returns to the bloodstream.

Lymphatic Circulation

One way system that begins in the tissues and ends when the lymph joins the blood.

Lymphatic Capillaries

smallest lymph vessels
closed at one end - one way system
tethered to surrounding tissue by protein filaments
endothelial cells loosely overlapped - wide gaps
allow bacteria and cells entrance to lymphatic capillary
creates valve-like flaps that open when interstitial fluid pressure is high, and close when it is low

Lymphatic Vessels

large vessels with valves, which collect and carry lymph to lymph nodes - include superficial and deep sets and are named according to location - lymphatic vessels carry lymph away from regional nodes and eventually drain into one or 2 terminals vessels ( Right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct) - both of which empty into the bloodstream

Right Lymphatic Duct

short vessel 1/2 in long that receives only the lymph that comes from the bodys superior right quadrant - the right side of the head, neck and thorax as well as the right upper extremity - it empties into the RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN near the heart - its opening is guarded by 2 pocket like semilunar valves to prevent blood from entering the duct.

Thoracic Duct

Large LEFT lymph vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm

Movement of Lymph

Segment of lymphatic vessels between valves contract rhythmically propelling lymph along. ,Lymph is moved by same mechanisms that promote venous return of blood to the heart.

Muscle contraction during movement compresses lymph vessels and drive lymph forward.,Changes in pressure within the abdominal and thoracic cavities caused by breathing aid in movement of lymph through these cavities.

Lymphoid tissue

tissues where antigens interact with cells of the immune system, Lymphocyte storage areas; examples: tonsils, spleen, appendix

Lymph nodes

Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation

Hilum

indented area is the exit point for efferent lymphatic vessels carrying lymph out of the node

Spleen

the largest lymphatic organ in the body; serves as a blood reservoir, disintegrates old red blood cells, and produces lymphocytes and cleansing the blood of impurities and cellular debris by filtration and phatogocytes, producing red blood cells before birth.

Thymus

the primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum; helps maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes - THYMOSIN - most active during early life.

Tonsils

three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and the upper throat - PALATINE TONSILS, PHARYNGEAL TONSILS ( ADENOIDS) AND LINGUAL TONSILS

APPENDIX

A mass of lymphatic tissue at the befenning of the large intestine that helps trap ingested pathogens., A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.

RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM

consiSts of related cells responsible for the destruction of bateria, cancer cells, old blood cells - included among these cells are monocytes - relatively large white blood cells.

pus

a fluid product of inflammation

T cells

lymphocytes originating in the thymus gland

Plasma Cells

cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.

Humoral Immunity

specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies

Plasma "Cells"

are B cells

inguinal, Axillary, Cervical

The lymph nodes scattered throughout your body are mostly clustered in your groin, armpit, neck and throughout the torso. These are called ______,
____, and ____ lymph nodes

3 liters

How much fluids are forced out of the capillaries at __________ a day?

Lymphatic vessels.

Fluids are regathered by what kind of vessels?

permeable

The vessels are very _________?

capillaries, lymphatic capillaries.

The poteins in interstitial space cannot reenter _______, but can enter ___________ __________?

Disease organisms.

Lympathatic capillaries also take up _____________?

veins, thinner

Collecting vessels are similar to ________ but are ______ walled following along pathway of veins.

right lymphatic, rest of the body.

The ____ ______ duct, which receive lymph from right upper arm and right head and thorax, and thoracic duct, which serves the ____________?

Open

Because it is an _____ system, it is a potential entrance into the cardiovascular system for debris and infection as well as fluid.

right lymphatic duct

collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm; empties into the right subclavian vein

lymphatic capillaries

The flow of returning fluid begins its
journey by entering ________ ________.

porous

The lymphatic capillaries are very ______,
much more than even fenestrated capillaries

osmotic, blood

Two reasons why plasma leaves the capillaries: o______ pressure and b_____ pressure

tissue, Lymph

Once plasma is collected from cardiovascular system to lymphatic capillaries it is now called T___ fluid, or L____.

right lymphatic, thoracic

The tube from the right side of the body is called the _____ ______ duct. The tube from the left is called the _____ duct.

lymphatic

Elephantiasis, a tropical disease, is from Nematodes blocking ___________ ducts.

larger

thymus gland is ______ and more used in children than in adults.

Subclavian

The right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct empty into the vasculature at the right and left _______ VEINS.

VEINS

The right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct empty into the vasculature at the right and left Subclavian _______ .

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