Ch 38 - disorders presenting in middle childhood or adolescence

15 terms by fortheloveofmedicine 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

DSM criteria for ODD

4 or more of the following
- often loses temper
- argues with adults
- actively defies or refuses to cmoply with adults requests or rules
- blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior

Sx of ODD

Tendency of the subject to blame others for his or her own transgressions/omissions
- the aggression is predominately verbal rather than physical (reactive rather than proactive)

- families are highly stressed (mom depressed)
> when they set limits - (children react defiantly and it ends in harsh physical punishment)
> lack of positive reinforcement

usually evident before age 8, milder form of conduct disorder
- child has a "chip on their shoulder"
- tobacco use is likely as is alcohola nd substance abuse
- different than ADHD, coexists?
- Oppositional behavior is common during adolesence. When such behavior is severe, is is usually a manifestation of family dysfunction

Conduct disorder DSM Criteria

3 or more of the following:
- aggression to people and animals
- bullies threatens or intimidates others
- often initiates physical fights
- has used a weapon
- physically cruel to people
- physically crueal to animals
- destruction of property
- enagaged in fire setting
- destroyed other's property
- decietfullness or theft
> has broken into somone else's house beuilding or car
> stolen items of nontrivial volue without confronting a civtim
- serious violations of rules;
> run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parenteral home

Conduct disorder in General

- must be distinguished from transient antisocial behavior that reflects the risk taking and group contagion that are part of normal adolescence
- (antisocial behavior is common and requres no psychiatric attention)
- Conduct disorder represents severe, persistent and pervasive dysfunction

Clinical Findings with Conduct disorder

they may be intolerably disruptive or dangerous at home, in school or in the community

Medication for Conductive Disorder

Methylphenidate = reduces defiance, oppositionalism, aggresssion, and mood changes for 5-8 yrs

Divalproex = reducing hyperarousal, anger and aggressiveness in incarcerated adolescents. Particularly effective w/agression related to PTSD

lithium - reduces aggressiveness

oppositional defiant disorder usually precedes conduct disorder - only 25% of preschoolers with ODD progress to conduct disorder

ADHD - DSM criteria

6 or more of the following for 6 months
- inattention (makes careless mistakes)
- does not listen
- avoids tasks requiring sustained attention
- hyperactivity
- fidgets or squirms
- often leaves seat
- impulsion
- often blurts out answers
- difficulty waiting turn

ADHD general

high incidence of first degree relatives with ADHD

- Central physiologic mechanisms appear to consist of dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways involving the connections among basal ganglia, the limbic system and the frontal and prefontal cortex's

= single most common chronic behavior disorder in preadolescent children

- higher rates are found in inner city populations. more common in boys than girls for the predominately hyperactive impulsive type and 2:1 for the predominately inattentive type

Clinical Findings ADHD

hyperactivity and impulsivity tend to b/c less apparent as children get older and attention and cognitive problems move to the foreground

- secondary sx such as perceptual and emotional immaturity poor social skills may be observed

- academic under achievement is further enhanced by commonly comorbid lanugage an dlearning disorders

- disruptive and impulsive behaviors perist

*distinguishing inattention from absence sizures is a consideration in the DD

-

Social Hx for ADHD

- parents of hcildren with ADHD have an increased rate of psychopathology and marital discord

- mothers have been found to be depressed

- father show increased problems with antisocial behavior and job instability

Treatment for ADHD

stimulant meds - pscyostimulants (DOC)
= methylphenidate - most common
= dextroamphetamine and pernoline - less common


undocumented treatment
- no report of dietary effects of sugar and food additives on behavior except in small percent
> Megativtamin = ineffective and dangerous

Prognosis and course of ADHD

> formal schooling -= most difficult stage in life. later stages - ppl find occupational or edicaiotnal niches that commodate their behavior and cognitive idiosyncracies

Clinical Finding ADHD

SEVERE DISTRESS WHEN SEPARATED OR THREATNED WITH SEPERATION from their parent ususally the mother

want to sleep in parenteral bed

refuse to be alone

plead not to go to school

time to go to school children complain of abdominal pain, N/V, diarrhea, urinary frequency

Gender Idienty disorder - DSM

persistent cross gender identification
- repeated stated desire to be or insistence that or she is the other sex
- strong persistent preferences for cross sex roles in make believe play
- intense desire to participate in teh sterotypicla games and pastimes of other sexes
- frequent passing as the other sex

Conditions with Gender Identity Disorder

Boys: assertion that his peins or testes are disgusting or an aversion of rough and tumble play

Girls: rejection of uriation in a sitting position, assertion that she will grow a perins, or an assertion that she does not want to grow breasts or menstruate

Disturbance is not concurrent with physical intersex condition

window of psychological vulnerability between 21/2 - establish gender identification and 6 when he or she recognizes gener assignment is stable

grow up with homosexual behaviors

- no evidence that early intervention with change sexual orientations, but early intervention may reduce subsequent gender dysphoria and transexualism

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set