all behavior has causal explanations.
emphasizes the importance of physiological conditions and/or genetic predispositions in explaining behavior
emphasizes the importance of environmental stimuli as determinants of behavior.
emphasizes cultural or societal rules, regulations, customs, and beliefs that govern human behavior
human behavior may be determined but the causes cannot be accurately measured
science is not a way to study humans;Humans behavior is freely chosen and self-generated
Causes behavior in an automatic, mechanistic manner;Notion of personal responsibility is meaningless
Cognitive processes intervene between experience and production of behavior;
a person is responsible for actions
how you experience the world
feeling in a limb that isn't there
Led psychologist to study sensation and perception
American/French revolution soldier injuries
wanted to see if there were consciousness after beheading ,face twitching after beheading call name after beheading or let them smell something and no reaction. reflexes can still happen - muscles can contract from lack of water and oxygen, cuticle and tissues reseed, nails don't really grow.
Why Germany for Biscof's early work?
Germans defined science broadly
history, literary criticism, linguistics, applied logic Germans wanted to apply scientific method to human behavior
Reform movement in education
( you teach what ever you think is important in your discipline)
What were other European colleges teaching?
Most of europe you learned about religion and latin but not much of a liberal arts education
church dictated what was taught
Demonstrated that there are separate nerves for sensory and motor functions
sensory neurons come in the back motor goes out the front
Found similar results as Charles Bell thus the "bell-magendie" law
paralysis after a stroke
developed the doctrine of specific nerve energies
First experimental philology
wrote handbook of human philology
Doctrine of specific nerve energies
each nerve responds in its own characteristic way regardless of the stimulation that activated it.
Materialist -Life can be explained in chemical and physical processes, Speed of nerve conduction
165-330 feet per second. theory of color vision, Resonance place theory of auditory perception - interpret sound at a pitch based on where it is vibrating on the membrane
very little practical application
Christine Ladd Franklin
Evolutionary theory of color vision
black and white- blue and yellow - red and green
her research "fell into neglect" because she was a woman
Franz Josef Gall personal life
began studying for the priesthood and could not do it, he became a surgeon and anatomist
he was excommunicated because his work was ungodly, had several wives supported many households, church not super on board
Human "faculties" can be identified and located in specific parts of the brain
began testing human for psychological traits and intelligence
Loved to measure everything
How a man who had a job that didn't pay have some many interest.
cousin to charles darwin- independently wealthy
educated at home - self guided schooling
mapped most of Africa
wrote some of the first travel guides
first systematic weather maps
Basis for current meteorology
all precise measurement
Interested in individual differences
Believed there must be an evolutionary reason that people are better than other people
survival value in intelligence which would put you at the top and passing those traits to children would keep you at the top.
Good to marry your daughter off to someone with money and title
he studied people who were famous for talent and studied their ancestry concluded traits must be heritable
Methodologies created by Galton
Survey method, twin studies
Figured out that not all twins are identical
Book galton wrote "i propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance"
the use of selective breeding to increase the general intelligence of the population( galton)
encourage people who have intelligence to marry each other have produce offspring. will end up with super race of British people who are white and rich and titled. (galton)
prevent people with undesirable traits from reproducing (galton)
if you are poor you are not smart
immigration diluted to breeding stock
didn't want Italians to marry british
but Scandinavians could
the whiter you were the purer the darker the worst
the whiter the better
similar to dog breeding
Quantifying traits to determine who they should marry, eugenics used this so do modern dating sites
Galton's human testing lab 1884
People paid for Galton to measure them (10000 people)
a dog whistle galton invented to determine what pitch each animal could hear
Who invented the correlation
Tested children for mental fatigue and did not find any but did see a difference between weak students and strong students- beginning of educational testing
Asked to develop test to determine which students needed to be in special ed
Developed test using "mental age" If your actual age was 2 years below your mental age you should be in special ed.
Binet's categories of children
Idiots - severely handicapped
Imbeciles- could someone take care of themselves
Debiles -weak students ( taught some kind of skill, could be put in slowed down classes)
Scientific method guy; principle of falsifiability
Paradigm challenged the normal science and created the next set of test that created the next normal science. its a process
Stages of scientific development; Kuhn
1. Prepardigmatic stage: prior to the development of a paradigm a number of competing viewpoints exist.
2. paradigmatic stage: the puzzle solving activity called normal science occurs.
3. revolutionary stage: the existing paradigm is replaced by a new one.
Theories of how are the mind and body related
1. materialists/monists: mental events are ultimately explained by the laws of physics or chemistry
2. idealists: explain everything in terms of consciences.
3. Dualist: there are both physical and mental events. This is where the question of the mind body relationship comes up.
dualist, first to say, pineal gland controlled the body "I think therefore I am"
Nativism Vs Empiricism
Nativism- origins of our attributes
Empiricism- based on experience
Mechanism vs. Vitalism
Mechanism: the behavior of all organisms can be explained in the same way that the behavior of a machine.
Vitalism: life can never be completely reduced to material/mechanical laws. Living things contains vital force.
Rationalism Vs irrationalism
Rationalism: emphasizes the importance of logical, systematic and intelligent thought processes. (intellect better then emotions)
Irrationalism: explanation that emphasizes unconscious determinant. (if true causes of behavior are unconscious they cannot be pondered rationally)
the belief that what one experiences mentally is the same as what is present physically
Nightview/Dayview - Materialism/ vitialism
He is a vitilism - the good and consciousness
Nightview- the cold sad part- materialism
all physical things are conscious
Published as Dr. Misees- about day view and vitialism
interested in psycho physics- like weber work
Created Webers law
Everyone has different perceptions
Did two point threshold work, the Just noticeable difference
Wrote the elements of psychophysics 1860
Fechner, considered the first experimental psych book and psycho-physics
Had the first psych lab, established psychology as a separate science
University of Leipzig
Fechner (16) studied with Weber here
Fechner got med degree here
the study of the relationship between pysical and psychological events
the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected
How much a stimlus magnitude needs to be increase in order to be notices
Fechner created what?
Psychophyicis and experimental asethics
Studied after images and became blind because he stared at the sun
showed that the observer influences observations which fueled interest in the discrepancies between objective and subjective realities.
Descartes thought about nerves
thought that a nerve consisted of fibers that connected sense receptors to the brain. These were hollow tubes that transmitted "animal Spirits" from the brain to the muscles
Hartley thought about nerves
nerves were the means by which vibrations were conducted from the sense receptors to the brain and from the brain to the muscles
each of the five types of sense organ is maximally sensitive to a certain type of stimulation (muller)
Muller was a
First institute for experimental physiology was created by
Young-Helmotz theory of color vision
three colors have separate receptors on the eye the combo of each make new colors
-Trichromatic theory of color vision
Herring theory of color vision
3 types of receptors but each could respond 2 different ways "red-green" "white-black" "yellow blue"
1. the mental faulties do not exist to the same extent in all humans
2. the faculties are house in specific areas of the brain
3. if a faculty is well developed a person would have a bump or protrusion on the corresponding part of the skull, visa versa.
first to distinguish the functions of white and grey matter of the brain
-Wanted to scientifically prove that phrenology was a croc.
-after studying the brain concluded that there was some localization but that contrary to what the phrenologists believed, the cortical hemispheres do not have localized functions. Instead the functions unit.
-at least one part of the brain had the capacity to take over the function of another.
found contra-lateral function
One of the first to think the brain was the seat of intellect and emotion
Wanted to prove women were inferior to to men but was SURPRISED when he didn't find their brains didn't look different
Expected their brains to be soft and look like monkey brains
Method of ablation
Cutting out parts of the brain to figure out what they did (florens)
Theory of color vision- each receptor could respond in two different ways
Found that the brain worked together: Support wholism ///against phrenology
Clincal Method by broca
first determining a behavior disorder in a living patient and then after the patient had died location the part of the brain responsible for the behavior
Studied "Tan" and found the area that made language
Found the area that comprehended language
Mapped the motor cortex
Fritsch and hitzig
found When certain areas are simulated motor movement in the opposite side of the body, Found this by poking at dogs and monkey brains, evidence for localization of functions
sought to explain conscious experience in terms of unobservable cognitive processes.
created the Stanford-Binet test
Developed best known IQ test (coined term "intelligence quotient")
Genetic studies of genius: mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children
Society thought about gifted kids
Thought intelligent kids were socially troubled or could "burn through" their intelligence
dating manuals told girls to steer clear of smart boys they will beat you
just as likely to have Stable marriages, children socially adept, as control
women tended have more dissatisfaction with their careers than a control group because there were not the same career opportunities
Gifted children did not "burn out"
Terman's termites had a _____ response rate
93% response rate
Developed Test for army recruits
Army beta test
for illiterate soldiers
Army Alpha test
for literate soldiers
Was drafted in the army to make tests
Yerkes primate Center
animal behavior center at yale
got the funding from yale but went to florida
is this useful?
First guy to self-identify as a psychologist
Came up with introspection
Wrote Principles of psychology
The shorter version of "principles of psychology"
Went to med school but hated sick people
Comparing normal human consciousness to animals infants, criminals, savages, idiots, eccentrics.
functionalism: concern for practicality, emphasis on the individual, and evolutionary theory.
Thought psychology should be a pure science, developed structuralism, not interested in meaningful experiences. Studied with Wundt. Both believed that psychology should study immediate experience. Structuralism died with him
the study of the structure of the mind/refused practical knowledge
Started the "experimentalist" the group
more women completed their Ph.D under him than any other men during this time
Believed that mental processes(judging, recalling,expecting,loving) should be aimed at performing some function
every mental act refers to something outside itself (brentano)
Introspective analysis directed towards intact meaningful experiences
Was Brentano's student
Wundt's approach to psychology emphasis on will choice and purpose, Believed people decided what to give attention to and to what is precieved clearly
Applied to graduate school in NY after she wasn't allowed to be a teacher because she was a women, Interested in gifted children and developed curiculum for gifted children. Wanted to prove women were equal to men, "woman have not had the opportunity to excel because of the burden of child bearing and rearing"
Mamie Phipps Clark
A black women who was from an affluent family in Hot Springs AR. Wasn't allowed to study math and physics so studied psychology instead. Developed the doll test used in brown v. board of education Started "north side center for child development"
social services, education, testing, and psychological services
Helmholtz notion that perceptions are transformed from sensations after past experience has given the sensations meaning
G. stanley Hall
first pres. of clark Uni, first pres of APA
taught at Harvard and John Hopkins Uni
pioneer of developmental psychology
Wrote the "contents of children minds"
Stages of psychology in American
Moral and mental philosophy
the us renaissance
concern for practicality, emphasis on the individual, and evolutionary theory.
-began with the principles of Psychology
-the assumptions concerning the mind were derived from evolutionary theory, the goal was to understand how the mind and behavior work in aiding an organism's adjustment to the environment, and research tools include anything that was informative—including the use of introspection, the study of animal behavior, and the study of the mentally ill.
the us renaissance
psychology was completely emancipated from religion and philosophy and became an empirical science.
-it was in this stage that Titchener began his influential structuralist program at Cornell which successfully competed with functionalism for several years.
-The Scottish philosophers also maintained that self-examination or introspection, yields valid info and that morality is based on self-evident intuitions.
-the strong influence of the Scottish commonsense philosophy, as well as the emphasis on the individual that was later to characterize modern us psych
Moral and mental philosophy
During this time psyc concerned matters of the soul, psyc existed for the sake of logic, and logic of or the sake of god
Mary whiton Calkins
Went to smith college, sat on in Jame's lectures at Harvard, conducted dream research with E. Sanford
Thought dreams were a reproduction of events during the day
Mary Whiton Calkins
First woman President of APA
Mary Whiton Calkins
Developed system of Self-psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
Major contributions to psychology:
-Self-psychology which led to personality theory
-the conscious self is the central fact of psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
Formal discipline (gall)
education can be arranged to strengthen certain faculties
biggest contribution was in the field of memory - his first work was "unmemory and investigation of experimental psych.
First retention curve- important for education
first to study learning and memory experimentally
Psychology should not be an experimental science dont use scientific methods
We need to know the essences of things
Some thoughts are imageless //against Wundt
Cutting mouses tails and thought the next generation would have no tails but was wrong