CH. 4: Basic Cooking Principles

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After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Name the most important components of foods and describe what happens to them when they are cooked.

To cook quickly in a small amount of fat.

Saute

To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air in an oven or on a spit over an open flame.

Roast

To cook with radiant heat from above.

Broil

To cook submerged in hot fat.

Deep Fry

To cook partially and very briefly in boiling water or hot fat.

Blanch

To cook by simmering or boiling until the quantity of liquid is decreased.

reduce

To cook uncovered in a skillet or saute pan without fat.

Pan-broil

To cook on an open grid over a heat source.

Grill

To cook in a moderate amount of fat in a pan.

Pan-fry

To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling gently, about 185-205 degrees.

Simmer

To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after preliminary browning.

Braise

To cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot but not actually bubbling.

Poach

To cook in hot fat.

Fry

To cook by direct contact with steam.

Steam.

To Cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling rapidly.

Boil

True or False
As proteins are heated, they coagulate. This means they become firmer and absorb moisture.

False

True or False
Fruit and vegetable fiber becomes softer when cooked.

True

True or False
The transfer of heat from the outside to the inside of a piece of roasting meat is an example of convection.

False

True or False
In a microwave oven, the microwaves penetrate to the center of a large roast and cook the itme rapidly.

False

True or False
Overcooking is a common problem in microwave cooking because of the high energy levels.

True

True or False
If the fat in a deep-fat fryer starts to smoke, it means that the fat is breaking down and may have to be discarded.

True

True or False
Steam is a better conductor of heat than air is.

True

True or False
The air in an oven transfers heat energy from the gas or electric element to the food being cooked by means of convection.

True

True or False
Thick steaks should be broiled at higher heat than thin ones so that the heat will penetrate the meat.

False

True or False
A griddle cooks at a lower temperature than a grill or broiler.

True

True or False
Salt, detergent, moisture, excessively low cooking temperatures, and exposure to air all shorten the life of frying oil.

True

True or False
Foods to be sauteed should be started in a cold pan.

False

True or False
A pot roast is a large cut of meat cooked in a covered pan by the roasting method.

False

True or False
Most foods cooked in a liquid are simmered rather than boiled, because the liquid heat of boiling can damage many foods.

True

True or False
Sauteing requires high heat.

True

True or False
Cayenne and paprika are two spices that are closely related, although cayanne is much hotter.

True

True or False
Mint, parsley, celery seed, and oragano are examples of herbs.

False

True or False
It is important to be able to distinguish the tastes of the spices in a finished dish.

False

True or False
Only the colored part of the lemon peel should be used for flavoring.

True

True or False
Most dried spices should not be added until near the end of cooking.

False

True or False
So that they can be easily removed, whole herbs and spices for flavoring a liquid are tied in a piece of cheesecloth called a zest.

False

True or False
Spices must be stored so that they are protected from heat, light, and moisture.

True

True or False
Prepared mustard is one of the few flavoring ingredients that can be added at the end of cooking.

True

True or False
Lemon juice is used as a seasoning for some sauces.

True

True or False
White and black pepper come from the same plant.

True

True or False
In general, moist foods hear more quickly in a microwave oven than dry foods do.

True

True or False
When you are cooking large items in a microwave oven, it is important to cook them until completely done without disturbing them.

False

True or False
Microwaaves do not go through metal, such as aluminum foil.

True

True or False
When smoke-roasting in a hotel pan on a range top, it is important to leave the food smoking at high heat for at least 30 minutes, so that the food will absorb the smoke flavor.

False

A cook's judgment is based on his/her__________.
A. experience.
b. Knowledge of basic cooking priciples.
c. understanding of the raw ingredients.
d. all of the above

d. All of the above

Adding an acid to meat during the cooking process__________.
a. speeds up the gelitinization process.
b. tends to slow the coagulation of its protein.
c. helps dissolve some of its connective tissue.
d. all of the above

c. Helps dissolve some of its connective tissue.

Which pair of words makes the following sentence true when inserted in the blanks? Caramelization occures when ________ browns, and gelatinization occures when ________ absorbs water and swells.
a. sugar, starch
b. starch, sugar.
c. protein, carbohydrate
d. carbohydrate, protein

a. sugar, starch

Which of the following types of edible compounds has a smoke point?
a. fat
b. sugar
c. starch
d. protein

a. fat

Heat can be transfered by __________.
a. radiation.
b. convection.
c. conduction.
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Conduction occurs when heat is transfered __________. a. by means of air, steam, or liquid.
b. directly from one item to something touching it.
c. from one part of an item to an adjacent part of the same item.
d. both b and c

d. both b (directly from one item to something touching it)
and c (from one part of an item to an adjacent part of the same item)

Chef Marie stirs her sauce while it is cooking so that it does not burn on the bottom of the saucepan. This is an example of _________ convection.
a. natural
b. thermal
c. conductive
d. mechanical

d. mechanical

Which of the following heating methods will fail to heat a material that has no moisture content?
a. infrared
b. microwave
c. conduction
d. convection

b. microwave

Dried beans cannot be successfully cooked in a microwave because they __________.
a. are too small.
b. contain almost no water.
c. explode before they finish cooking.
d. consist of all carbohydrates and no proteins.

b. contain almost no water

Which of the following is the correct descending order (from highest temperature to lowest) of the three methods to cook food in a water or seasoned and flavored liquid?
a. boil-simmer-poach
b. simmer-poach-boil
c. poach-boil-simmer
d. none of the above

a. boil-simmer-poach

If a very delicate food is cooked in water or a seasoned and flavored liquid, it should be ________ so that it does not fall apart.
a. boiled
b. poached
c. blanched
d. simmered

b. poached

I am a blanched green bean. This means that I have been __________.
a. partially cooked.
b. cooked at a altitude above sea level.
c. cooked until my natural color has disappeared.
d. cooked for a long period of time at a low temperature.

a. partially cooked.

Which of the following is a combination of both moist and dry heat cooking?
a. braising
b. roasting
c. blanching
d. en papillote

a. braising

Which of the following sets of words completes this sentence correctly? To ________ means to cook with heat from ________.
a. grill, above
b. broil, below
c. both of the above
d. none of the above

d. none of the above

Barbecuring is a roasting or grilling technique that requires __________.
a. a wood fire
b. outdoor cooking
c. a special basting sauce
d. all of the above

a. a wood fire

Which of the following statements about roasting is correct?
a. It is essential that you never cover the meat while it is roasting.
b. Roasting and baking are two entirely different cooking processes.
c. Never change the position of the roast in the oven onve it has started cooking.
d. Roasts cooked in the back of the oven cook more slowly because the back of the oven is not as hot as the front.

a. It is essential that you never cover the meat while it is roasting.

Which of the following terms is associated with broiling? a. slow
b. low heat
c. tender food items
d. all of the above

c. tender food items

A salamander is a special type of __________.
a. grill
b. griddle
c. broiler
d. saute pan

c. broiler

When food is sauteed, it is important __________.
a. to sear the food quickly.
b. not to overcrowd the pan.
c. to preheat the pan before sauteing.
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Deglazing takes place after __________.
a. grilling
b. broiling
c. deep-frying
d. Sauteing

d. sauteing

Which of the following is not a guideline for deep-frying? a. Don't overload the baskets.
b. Fry as close to service as possible
c. Most foods are fried at 350 to 375 degrees F
d. Fry both strong and mild flavored items in the same fat.

d. Fry both strong and mild flavored items in the same fat.

Whic of the following items would be least suitable for microwave cooking?
a. a fillet of sole
b. an acorn squash
c. a bowl of chicken broth
d. a thin slice of rare steak

d. a thin slice of rare steak

To sweat means to cook __________.
a. slowly
b. wihtout browning
c. in a small amount of fat
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Although spices, herbs, and seasonings are important parts of a cook's job, it is crucial to remember that ________.
a. most customers prefer their foods without additives.
b. your main ingredients are your main source of flavor. c. even the most subtle use of these ingredients can diminish the flavor of foods.
d. all of the above

b. your main ingredients are your main source of flavor.

__________ act(s) on the tastes buds rather than changing the actual flavor of the food to which it has been added.
a. Salt
b. MSG
c. Pepper
d. Wine and brandy

b. MSG

In order to assemble a sachet, you must have __________.
a. string
b. cheesecloth
c. herbs and spices
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following combination is incorrect?
a. clove-bud
b. cumin-seed
c. marjoram-root
d. cinnamon-bark

c. marjoram-root

When fats melt and drip out of a roast as it cooks, which of the following is lost from the food?
a. calories
b. fat-soluble vitamins
c. flavor components
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Salted water freezes at ________ compared with pure water.
a. a higher temperature
b. a lower temperature
c. the same temperature
d. none of the above, Salted water does not freeze.

b. a lower temperature

The Maillard reaction is the name given to what cooking reaction?
a. The coagulation of the proteins in the presence of an acid
b. The loss of water-soluble vitamins and minerals die to shrinkage during cooking
c. The process that is responsible for the browning of the surface of meat when it is cooked
d. The process by which starch granules absorb water and expaned.

c. The process that is responsible for the browning of the surface of meat when it is cooked

The combination of flavors that characterize a finished dish is called __________.
a. the flavor profile.
b. the primary flavors.
c. the secondary flavors.
d. the supporting flavors.

a. the flavor profile.

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