← APUSH Unit 12 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All A. Mitchell Palmer This attorney general earned the title of the "Fighting Quaker" by his excess of zeal in rounding up suspects during the nationwide crusade against left-wingers whose Americanism was suspect, or "red scare." He ultimately rounded up about 6,000 people. His drive to root out radicals was redoubled in June 1919, when a bomb destroyed his house. After that, he was called the "Quaking Fighter." American Expeditionary Force This was the name for the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I they fought in France alongside the Allies in the last year of the war, against the Germans. They helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive (at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood) in June 1918, and fought in the Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Offensives in late 1918. An important general was Pershing. Automobile Industry This new industry changed the daily life of Americans in unprecedented ways. It was based on assembly-line methods and mass-production techniques and was developed by Henry Ford and Random E. Olds. The early cars were neither speedy nor reliable. Detroit became the motorcar capital of America, owing much to Frederick W. Taylor's efficiency techniques. Henry Ford's Model T was cheap, rugged, and reasonably reliable, though rough and clattering. The industry was dependent on steel and served as a major wellspring of the nation's prosperity, creating thousands of jobs. It allowed for the speedy marketing of perishable foodstuffs, the building of new roads, and the breakdown among the sections. America became a nation of commuters. However, gangsters could now make quick getaways. The automobile brought more convenience, pleasure, and excitement into more people's lives than almost any other single invention. Committee on Public Information This committee was created for the purpose of mobilizing people's minds for war. It was headed by the young journalist George Creel, whose job was to sell America on the war and sell the war on Wilsonian war aims. The propaganda took varied forms, such as posters, billboards, leaflets, pamphlets, propaganda booklets, movies, and songs. Creel typified American war mobilization, which relied more on aroused passion and voluntary compliance than on formal laws. Eighteenth Amendment This amendment outlawed the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol. It was loudly supported by crusading churches and by many women. It was especially popular in the South and West. Southern whites wanted to keep alcohol away from blacks to keep them in their place and in the West, prohibition represented an attack on all the vices associated with saloons. The amendment was protested in larger eastern cities because of the large number of immigrants and was highly unpopular to workers because they bemoaned the loss of their cheap beer while pointing out that the rich could buy all the illicit alcohol they wanted. The prohibitionists were naïve because they overlooked the tenacious American tradition of strong drink and of weak control by the central government, especially over private lives. Therefore, the amendment was unsuccessful and tons of "speakeasies" were opened. Beverages of high alcoholic content were popular and so were "home brew" and "bathtub gin." Entertainment This took a whole new form in the Roaring 20's. People drove around in automobiles for fun. Radios also became very popular, as families and neighbors gathered around to hear programs such as "Amos 'n' Andy" and listen to commercials advertising various products. Radios further stimulated sports because people could listen to what was going on in the game. People also went out dancing to the new jazz music. Movies were also popular, as Hollywood became the movie capital of the world. The first "talkie" came out in 1927, called "The Jazz Singer." Espionage and Sedition Acts These two acts prohibited (1) any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment and (2) forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt. Despite the fact that these laws went against people's first amendment rights, the first law was upheld by the case Schenck v. United States and the second was upheld by the case Abrams vs. United States. Anti-war Socialists and IWW members were prosecuted under these laws, including Eugene Debs. Flappers These young women had short hair and wore short dresses. They symbolized a yearned-for and devil-may-care independence in American women. They were considered to be scandalous by other women, especially when they wore the new one-piece bathing suits. Justification for this new sexual frankness could be found in the recently translated writings of Dr. Sigmund Freud, who argued that sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous and emotional ills. Food Administration This administration was headed by Herbert Hoover. America was responsible for feeding itself and its allies. Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary compliance rather than on compulsory edicts, deliberately rejecting ration cards. He waged a whirlwind propaganda campaign, urging people to participate in wheatless Wednesdays and meatless Tuesdays in order to save food for export. Americans also started "Victory Gardens" to grow some of their own food. The campaign was successful, with farm production increasing by one-fourth and food exports to the Allies tripling in volume. Fourteen Points This was Wilson's plan for a better world, which included a proposal to abolish secret treaties, freedom of the seas, a removal of economic barriers, reduction of armament burdens, an adjustment of colonial claims in the interests of both native peoples and the colonizers, and the formation of the League of Nations. The League of Nations was the most important point for Wilson. Certain leaders of the Allied nations and Republicans were not in favor of these points. In the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson ended up compromising on most of the points. Fuel Administration This administration, headed by Harry Garfield, exhorted Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays," "lightless nights," and "gasless Sundays." It was created to address concerns about a steady supply of fuel to support military and industrial operations and for use by consumers. The activities of the administration included setting and enforcing the prices of coal. The administration had broad powers to set the price of coal at various points (mine, dock) and the cost of transportation (by rail), and in regards to end use (home, factory, or business, etc.) Harlem Renaissance This was a result of the African American migration into northern cities in order to find industrial jobs. Many African Americans gathered in Harlem, the northern part of Manhattan Island with a vibrant, creative culture. It was seen as a sort of Promise Land. There were two types of night clubs there, musicals performed for white audiences and serious non-musical theatre performed for both whites and blacks. Jazz blossomed out of a combination of ragtime, blues, rockabilly, gospel, and folk music. Popular musicians were Scott Joplin and Duke Ellington. New authors included Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, and Zora Neale Hurston. During this movement, African Americans proudly exulted in their culture and argued for a "New Negro" who was a full citizen and a social equal to whites. Immigration quota system The first step in establishing this system was the passage of the Emergency Quota Act of 1921. This restricted newcomers from Europe in any given year to a definite quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who had been living in the U.S. in 1910. It was replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924, which cut quotas from 3% to 2% and changed it from 1910 to 1890. It also completely shut out Japanese immigrants. Southern Europeans bitterly denounced the device as unfair and discriminatory because very few Southern Europeans had made it to the U.S. in 1890. The purpose of these laws was to freeze America's existing racial composition. This new system claimed that the nation was filling up and marked the end of a period of virtually unrestricted immigration. Immigration restriction did not appeal to all reformers. Ku Klux Klan This group mushroomed fearlessly in the early 1920s. It more closely resembled the antiforeign "nativist" movements of the 1850s than the antiblack nightriders of the 1860s. It was antiforeign, anti-Catholic, antiblack, anti-Jewish, antipacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, antievolutionist, antibootlegger, antigambling, antiadultery, and anti-birth control. It was pro-Anglo-Saxon, pro-"native" American, and pro-protestant. It capitalized on the typically American love of on-the-edge adventure, in-group camaraderie, and secret ritual. They held huge flag-waving parades. Their warning was the blazing cross. The weapon was the lash, supplemented by tar and feathers. This group was glorified in the movie "Birth of a Nation." They suddenly collapsed in the late 1920s due to the scandalous embezzling by their officials. League of Nations This was one of Wilson's chief points in his Fourteen Points. It was to be an international organization or "world parliament" that Wilson dreamed would provide a system of collective security. He believed it would effectively guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries. It was written into the Treaty of Versailles, so that whoever accepted the treaty was also joining the group. However, the Republican-majority Senate would not approve it. Marcus Garvey This Harlem political leader founded the United Negro Improvement Association to promote the resettlement of American blacks in their own "African homeland." The UNIA also sponsored stores and other business to keep blacks' dollars in their pockets. However, most of this leader's enterprises failed financially and he was convicted in 1927 for alleged mail fraud and was deported. Despite this unfortunate ending, the race pride that he inspired helped blacks gain self-confidence and self-reliance. Margaret Sanger This feminist led an organized birth-control movement, which openly championed the use of contraceptives. She coined the term "birth control," opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, and established Planned Parenthood. She felt that in order for women to have a more equal footing in society and to lead healthier lives, they needed to be able to determine when to bear children. National War Labor Board This board, chaired by former president Taft, exerted itself to head off labor disputes that might hamper the war effort. Its goal was to foster the use of maximum manpower on the home front. While pressing employers to grant concessions to labor, including high wages and the eight-hour day, it stopped short of supporting labor's most important demand, which was a government guarantee of the right to organize into unions. Nineteenth Amendment This amendment gave all American women the right to vote. Paris Peace Conference At this conference at the end of WWI, the Big Four dominated, which were the United States, Italy, Britain, and France. Speed was urgent because Europe needed to be patched up quickly. Wilson's ultimate goal was the League of Nations, but he first bent his energies to preventing any vengeful parceling out of the former colonies and protectorates of the vanquished powers. The victors would not take possession of the conquered territory outright, but would receive it as trustees of the League of Nations. The powers agreed to make the League of Nations an integral part of the treaty. Important decisions made at this conference were that France would not get possession of the Saar basin but was promised the aid of Britain and America in the event of another German invasion, Italy did not get possession of Fiume, and Japan got Germany's economic holdings in Shandong but would return it to China later. Eventually, the conference resulted in the Treaty of Versailles, in which only about 4 of Wilson's points were honored and the overall tone was vengeance, not reconciliation. Wilson was not happy with the results. Red Scare This was a fear of Communism and Russia that swept the United States from 1919-1920. For example, normal strikes were blamed on "the anarchy of Russia." This was a godsend to conservative businesspeople, who used it to break the backs of the unions. This fear resulted in a nationwide crusade against left-wingers whose Americanism was suspect. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer played a big role in this. These feelings were heightened by events such as the deportation of alleged alien radicals to Russia and a bomb that blew up on Wall Street. Statutes were passed that made unlawful the mere advocacy of violence to secure social change. Sacco and Vanzetti These two Italian immigrants were convicted in 1921 of the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard. The jury and judge were prejudiced in some degree against them because they were Italians, anarchists, atheists, and draft dodgers. Liberals and radicals from all over the world rallied to their defense, but they were still put to death through electrocution. Communists and other radicals were thus presented with two martyrs in the "class struggle." The evidence against them was very weak. If the trial had not been held in the midst of the "red scare," the outcome might have only been a short prison sentence for them. Scopes Trial This trial, also known as the "Monkey Trial," occurred in Tennessee in 1925. A biology teacher, John T. Scopes, was indicted for teaching evolution. He was defended by nationally known attorneys while former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, an ardent Presbyterian Fundamentalist, joined the prosecution. Bryan was made to appear foolish by the famed criminal lawyer Clarence Darrow. This historic clash between theology and biology proved inconclusive. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. The Fundamentalists at best won only a hollow victory, for the absurdities of the trial cast ridicule on their cause. Sussex Pledge This was the agreement between the United States and Germany that occurred after the Germans torpedoed a French passenger steamer, the "Sussex." Wilson told the Germans that unless they renounced the inhumane practice of sinking merchant ships without warning, he would break diplomatic relations. The Germans agreed, but said that the U.S. would have to persuade the Allies to modify their blockade. Wilson accepted the German's acceptance but ignored the "string" that they attached to it. However, Germany soon went back on their promise and began attacking ships again. War Industries Board This board, headed by Bernard Baruch, was established to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and prices and allocated raw materials. It temporarily disbanded anti-trust laws. Woodrow Wilson This president, despite the fact that he wanted the nation to remain neutral, was forced to lead the U.S. into WWI due to the fact that Germany had started waging unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking all ships in the war zone. The war posed a formidable challenge to his leadership skills. He roused enthusiasm for the war by saying that it was to make the world "safe for democracy." His Fourteen Points Address inspired all the drooping Allies to make mightier efforts and demoralized the enemy governments. He endorsed woman suffrage as "a vitally necessary war measure" and therefore passed the 19th amendment. He made a series of tragic fumbles when dealing with the end of the war. For example, he himself went to the Paris Peace Conference and did not take a single Republican with him, even though the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, the Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, would have been the logical choice. When he went to the conference, he was welcomed by the masses in Europe. At the conference, he forced through a compromise between naked imperialism and his own idealism. While the Treaty of Versailles was stuck in the Senate, he made a tour around the nation making speeches in favor of the treaty. After one speech, he collapsed, returned to Washington, and had a stroke that left him paralyzed on one side of his body. His beloved treaty was rejected. World War I This war broke out when a Serb patriot killed the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. Because Serbia was backed by Russia, it refused to sufficiently apologize to Austria-Hungary. The Germans struck at France through neutral Belgium and Great Britain came in on France's side. The two sides were the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottomans) and the Allied Powers (France, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, Serbia, Japan, and the U.S.). The war lasted from 1914 to 1918. The U.S. entered the war in April 1917 after Germany resumed attacking all ships in the warzone in order to "make the world safe for democracy". The Zimmerman Note also led to the U.S. entry into the war. The draft act used by the U.S. to enlist men required the registration of all males between the ages of 18 and 45. Women and African Americans were admitted to the armed forces. The first U.S. trainees to reach France were used as replacements in the Allied Armies and were deployed in quiet sectors with the British and French. General Pershing's army undertook the Meuse-Argonne offensive to cut the German railroad lines feeding the western front. The Germans finally surrendered on November 11, 1918. The U.S.'s main contributions had been foodstuffs, munitions, credits, oil, and manpower, not battlefield victories. The Treaty of Versailles was hammered out at the Paris Peace Conference, but the U.S. Senate ended rejecting the treaty. Zimmerman Note This note that the U.S. intercepted and published in March 1917 infuriated Americans. It was from Germany to Mexico and proposed a German-Mexican alliance, tempting anti-Yankee Mexico with promises of recovering Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.