Otto Von Bismark
German Chancellor, wanted to keep peace between the powers. Called the Berlin Conference. Established the Three Emperors League. Referred to himself as "honest broker". Wanted to avoid war between Russia and Austria, did not want Germany to be dragged in.First made a Dual Alliance with Austria in secret. Italy asked to join in the alliance after being angered by France. Bismark got Russia to join in making it the Triple Alliance. When William II came to the throne he and Bismark had disagreements and William dismissed Bismark from his position.
Bismark established this conference to map out a European controlled Africa
the Boers were Dutch descendants that had controlled Southern Africa and were resisting British expansion in their territory. They embarrassed the British by having a successful rebellion against the British that later caused the British to make alliances with other powers.
Congress of Berlin
met under the presidency of Bismark. The goals of the congress was to stop Russian ambitions. Bulgaria was made 2/3s smaller and not allowed access to the Aegean Sea. Austria-Hungary was given Bosnia and Herzegovina. Britain got Cyprus and France was encouraged to occupy Tunisia.This compensated for Russia's gains.
the dual alliance said that Germany and Austria would come to help each other if Russia attacked them. If a different country attacked them they promised to remain neutral. This alliance was made in secret and Italy later joined.
this was a series of agreements made between France and Britain. It was not a formal treaty. This was a step at aligning Germany and Britain as enemies.
J. A. Hobson
English radical economist. Started the theory of New Imperialism.
Imperialism takes the form of either taking land and settling it with people or setting up trade centers to get resources from that area. New Imperialism was when nations invested in an underdeveloped country and build mines, railroads, bridges, harbors and employ the natives.
a song gave the word jingoism which meant super patriotism.
adapted the economic form of imperialism first given by J. A. Hobson.
Open Door Policy
this policy was proposed to China by the United States. It opposed foreign annexations in China and allowed entrepreneurs of every nation to trade on equal terms. The British helped this policy be supported by everyone except Russia.
The purpose of the German-Russian Reinsurance Treaty was because Russia had refused to renew the Alliance of the Three Emperors. Bismarck craftily substituted the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, by which both states promised neutrality if the other was attacked. It was ended in 1890 because the new Emperor William of Germany had dismissed Bismarck because of his friendly policy toward Russia. Then he had refused to renew the treaty.
"Sick Man of Europe"
the ottoman empire was referred to the sick man of europe. Europe was waiting for it to die (fall) so it could colonize
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
"Scramble for Africa"
Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa.
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882 because this scanal led to the bankruptcy of Egypt.
"The White Man's Burden"
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism. saw the world as Eurocentric and criticized the "white man's" need to westernize other cultures.
Three Emperors' League
A conservative alliance that linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia against radical movements
Alliance between France, Great Britain and Russia signed this agreement that meant that if one of these countries were to be attacked by neighboring countries, the other two would help defend their country. Wanted to stop Germany's growing of power. Prior to WWI.
William II (Germany)
29 years old he believed he ruled by divine right. He did not agree with Bismark about anything and dismissed him from his position. Wanted to have a navy and country similar to Britain. Changed everything Bismark had established, stopped the alliances with other countries except Austria and caused every other European power to make an alliance with the British turning everyone against Germany.