U1L2 Prokaryote structure: general features

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Lecture 2 of BMED2801 (Nick Coleman, 2009) at the University of Sydney

viruses

Very small and simple microbes that require a host cell to replicate

bacteria

Smallest free living organisms that have their own metabolism

coccus

A circular bacteria that can appear in pairs, chains and tetrads

rod

A straight or curved bacteria arranged in pairs, chains and pallisades

spirillum

A short, rigid, spiral shaped bacteria with only one or few twists

spirochaete

A long, thin spiral shaped bacteria with many 'twists', a rare pathogen useful for diagnosis

stalked

A bacteria with a stalk that helps it attach to surfaces

filamentous

A bacteria with straight or branching filaments

staphylococcus

Cocci arranged in clusters (example from lecture)

streptococcus

Cocci arranged in chains (example from lecture)

helicobacter pylori

Symptoms of gastric ulcers plus presence of spirilla

diphtheria

Respiratory distress plus presence of irregular rods in palisades are symptoms of...

nucleoid

Single circular chromosome plus structural proteins, NOT membrane bound

plasmid

An circular or linear piece of double stranded DNA with no protein coat

bacteriophage

A linear piece of double or single stranded DNA with a protective protein coat that attacks bacteria

nucleoid

The core genome of the bacterial cell

ciprofloxacin

An antibiotic that targets the nucleoid by inhibiting DNA synthesis

rifampin

An antibiotic that targets the nucleoid by inhibiting RNA synthesis

ribosome

A complex structure made of rRNA and proteins that performs protein synthesis

16S

A rRNA sequence that is conserved in all bacteria.

streptomycin

An antibiotic that inhibits ribosome function

Gram stain

Differentiates Gram-negative bacteria (red) from Gram-positive bacteria (purple)

peptidoglycan

Cell envelope in Gram-positive bacteria contains a thick layer of this

lipopolysaccharide

Cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria has an outer membrane of this.

porin

Protein that allows substances to pass through the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria

glycoprotein

A protein on the exterior of a plasma membrane that is important for immune function

steroid

Prokaryote membranes contain hopanoids to give rigidity, which are a type of...

plasma membrane

Selective permeability, metabolic processes and detection of environmental signals are all functions of the...

peptidoglycan

Structural polymer made of sugars and amino acids that is unique to bacteria

N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid

The peptidoglycan backbone is made of a repeating disaccharide unit that consists of...

peptide bridges

Peptidoglycan is crosslinked by...

osmotic protection

The function of peptidoglycan

penicillin

An antibiotic that targets peptidoglycan synthesis

O-antigen

The most external part of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is seen by the immune system

endotoxin

Component of Lipid A that is very toxic to humans in Gram-negative infections

SDS

A detergent that disrupts the membrane structure of bacteria

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