Test 1 Set 5: Ch 5 Histology

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Anatomy and Physiology

Name 4 primary tissue types

Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscular

Where can Epithelial Tissue be found and what does it constitute?

covers body surface, lines body cavities, forms internal/external organ linings, and constitutes most gland tissue

What are the 5 distinct Properties of Epithelial Tissue? (CRAP-A)

Cellularity, Regulation, Avascular, Polarity, Attachment

What is the difference between microvilli and Cilia?

Microvilli is surface area folds for absorption and Cilia are tiny hairlike features that provides locomotion

Where can StereoCillia be found?

male reproductive tract

What is Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue and where can you find it?

single layer of flat "scrambled egg-like" cells in contact with the basal lamina
usually found in lining of vessels and heart

What is Keratinzed Stratified Epithelial Tissue? Where can you find it?

covered in a layer of dead, compact, squamous cells packed with durable protein keratin and coated with water repellent glycolipid
thus, retards water loss and resists penetration by disease organisms
Skin is made up of this

What is NonKeratinized Stratified Epithelial Tissue? Where can you find it?

lacks surface layer of dead squamous cells
thus, abrasion resistant and must be kept moist by body secretion
Found in Anal Canal and Vagina

What is Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue? Where can it be found?

single layer of squarish/round cells
provides absorption and superb secretion properties
found on the surface of the ovaries, lining of nephrons, part of eye/ thyroid

What is Stratified Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue? Where can if be found?

multiple layers of squarish/round cells
found on the lining of large ducts and glands

What are Glandular Epithelial Tissue? What are the two types?

Cuboidal Epithelia that produces secretions
Endocrine and Exocrine

What are exocrine glands? What are their classifications?

discharge of secretion to epithelial surface via ducts
serous, mucous, and mixed

What are Serous Exocrine Glands? Example?

secrete a watery solution that contains enzymes
saliva

What are Mucous Exocrine Glands? Example?

Secrete mucin protein that absorbs water and creates slippery mucus
mucus in saliva

What is Simple Coiled Tubular Exocrine Gland? Where can one be found?

single unbranched duct and a secretory portion of uniform diameter, coiled
Merocrine Sweat Glands

What is Simple Tubular Exocrine Gland? Where can one be found?

single unbranched duct and a secretory portion of uniform diameter
Intestinal Glands

What is Simple Branched Tubular Exocrine Gland? Where can it be found?

single, branched duct and secretory portions of uniform diameter
Gastric Glands, Mucous Glands, Tongue, Duodenum

What is Simple Branched Alveolar Exocrine Gland? Where can it be found?

Branched duct with dilated sacs
Sebaceous Gland

What is compound Tubuclar? Where can it be found?

Many Branches of uniform diameter
Tested, Bulbourethral Gland, Mucous Gland

What is Compound Alveolar Exocrine Glands?

Many Branches with dilated sacs
Mammary Glands

What is compound Tubuloalveolar Exocrine Gland?

gland with tubular cells in both, tubular and acinar portions
Salviary Glands, Pancreas

What is Endocine Gland?

discharge secretion in surroundings without ducts
secretes hormones into the blood

What are the three modes of secretions?

Merocrine (Cellular Sweating), Aprocrine (Head Explodes, releasing secretions, then regenerating), and Holocrine (whole cell explodes, releasing body and secretions, stem cells create new one)

What is Simple non ciliated Columnar Epithelial Tissue? Where can it be found?

single layer of tall, narrow cells
provides protection with absorption capabilities
Ileum, Colon

What is Simple Ciliated Columnar Epithelial Tissue? Where can it be found?

hairlike structure on the apex of the Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue, provides locomotion
fallopian tubes, uterus, upper respiratory tract

What is stratified columnar epithelial tissue? Where can it be found?

multiple layers of tall, narrow cells
used for secretion and protection
anal canal, pharynx, larynx

What is Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissue? How can it be identified? Where can it be found?

every cell reaches the basal lamina and is identified by it's zigzag nucleus
contains cilia
contains "Goblet Cells" filled with mucus coating to protect mucus membrane found in upper respiratory passageways

What is Transitional Epithelial Tissue? How can they be identified? Where can they be found?

Stretches and changes shape
non usually ciliated
Contains all epithelial tissues, which is strange because they don't like to hang out
bladder

What are the classifications of Connective Tissue and their consistencies?

Connective tissue Proper (syrup like)
Fluid Connective Tissue (watery)
Supporting Connective Tissue (dry cement-like)

What is Connective Tissue?

connects structures, provides support and protection, fills space between structures, stores fat, defends from infection, and repairs tissue damage

What are the two types of cells in Connective Tissue Proper?

Fixed Cells and Wandering Cells

What are the types of fixed cells in Connective Tissue Proper?

Fibroblast, Fixed Macrophage, Adipocytes, Mesenchymal, and Melanocytes

What are Fixed Fibroblast cells of Connective Tissue Proper?

Star Shaped cells that are responsible for production of CT fibers and secretes Hyaluronan, which forms the syrupy ground substance

What are Fixed Macrophage cells of Connective Tissue Proper?

Responsible for engulfing damaged cells that enter the tissue and touches it, then releases chemicals that activates the immune system

What are Fixed Adipocytes of Connective Tissue Proper?

fat.

What are Fixed Mesenchymal Cells of Connective Tissue Proper?

Stem Cells of the connective tissue

What are Fixed Melanocyte Cells of Connective Tissue Proper?

synthesize and secrete melanin, which is responsible for skin color and protects skin from UV Radiation

What are Free Macrophages of Connective Tissue Proper?

arise from white blood cells and engulfs bacteria

What are Mast Cells of Connective Tissue Proper?

secrete histamine and heparin, which stimulate inflammation

What are Lymphocytes of Connective Tissue Proper?

forms into plasma, which synthesizes Antibodies,
found in intestines/inflamed tissue

What are Microphages of Connective Tissue Proper?

Neutrophils and eosoniphils
secretes chemical to attract mast cells

What are the fibers of Connective Tissue Proper?

Collagen, Reticular, and Elastic

What is Collagen Fiber of Connective Tissue Proper?

made up of Collagen Protein, then makes up tendons and ligaments

What is Reticular Fiber of Connective Tissue Proper?

collagen protein
creates spongelike framework for organs such as spleen and lymph nodes

What is Elastic Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper?

creates elasticity of the skin, lungs, and arteries,
made up of Elastin Protein

What are the two ways Connective Tissue Fibers are packed?

Loose and Dense

What are the three types of Loose Connective Tissue?

Areolar, Adipose, and Reticular

What is areolar tissue? Where can it be found?

loosely organized fibers, abundant blood vessels, and contains Fibroblasts, Macrophages, Adipocytes, Microphage, Mast, Lymphocyte cells
found pretty much everywhere
made up of mostly ground substance

What is Adipose tissue?

fat

What is Reticular Tissue?

mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts
forms structural framework of organs

What are the two types of Dense Connective Tissue?

Dense Regular and Dense Irregular

What is Dense Regular Connective Tissue? What are some examples?

composed of collagen fibers aligned in parallel protein o applied force
Tendons, Aponeuroses, Elastic Tissue, Ligaments

What is Dense Irregular Connective Tissue?

interwovan mesh work that do not have a consistent pattern
provides strength

What is Supporting Connective Tissue? What are some examples?

dry, cement like ground substance
Cartilage and Bone

What are three types of Cartilage?

Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage

What is Halyaline Cartilage composed of?

Collagen 2

What is Elastic Cartilage composed of?

elastin

What is Fibrocartilage composed of?

Collagen 1 and 2

What are thre type fluid connective tissues?

Blood and Lymph

What are the three types of muscle tissues?

Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth

What is Skeletal Muscle?

Striated, Voluntary Muscle

What is Cardiac Muscle?

Striated, Involuntary Muscle

What are the Intracallated Disks for in Cardiac Muscles?

binds tissues together

What is Smooth Muscle?

Nonstriated, involuntary muscle

How can you tell Squamous Epithelial Tissue and Smooth Muscle appart?

squamous don't have keratin

How can you tell apart between Areolar and Dense Irregular?

A relatively large amount of clear space suggests Areolar Tissue, thicker bundles of collagen and relatively little clear space suggests dense irregular tissue

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