Directed Reading A Chapter 11 Holt Life Science - Protists

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Protists belong to which kingdom?

Protista

The number of cells most protists are made of

One

The term used for all protists because their cells each have a nucleus

Eukaryotic

Name two protists

Pretzel slime mold, ulva, zooflagellate, paramecium

Traits that can differ among protists

Most are single celled, but some are multi cellular
Some live in colonies
Some produce their own food
Some eat organisms or decaying matter
Some can control their movements and others cannot

How do protists differ from other eukaryotic organisms?

less complex and do not have specialized tissues

What function do chloroplasts perform in protist producers?

They capture energy from the sun

What is the term for the process protists use to make their own food?

Photosynthesis

Name two ways protists get food

Protists get food by producing it or by getting it from their environment

What is a protist that makes its own food called?

Producer

What is a protist that cannot make its own food but has to get it from its environment?

Heterotroph

What is the name of a heterotroph which invades other organisms to get nutrients?

Parasite

What is the name of the organism that is invaded by a parasite?

Host

Protist heterotrophs that breakdown dead matter for energy are called what?

Decomposers

What do many protist heterotrophs eat?

Small living organisms such as bacteria, yeast, or other protists

In what three ways do protist heterotrophs get food?

1. eating small living organisms
2. breaking down dead organic matter
3. Invading another organisms

Name one example of a parasite causing harm to its host

The mid 1800's potato famine in Ireland

In asexual reproduction, how many parents are there?

One

In asexual reproduction, what process do single-celled protists use to divide into two cells?

Binary fission

What process do single-celled protists use in asexual reproduction to make more than two offspring from one parent?

Multiple fission

How do paramecia sometimes reproduce sexually?

Conjugation

What is conjugation?

Conjugation is when two protists reproduce sexually. (They join together and exchange genetic material by using a small second nucleus. Then they divide to produce 4 protists that have new combinations of genetic material)

When will a protist that normally reproduces asexually reproduce sexually?

When environmental conditions are stressful, such as when there is little food and water. Some Protist reproduction also alternates with each generation.

What is an example of a protist with a complex reproductive cycle?

Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). This protist causes Malaria

Summarize the five steps it takes for Plasmodium vivax to complete its reproductive cycle

1. Mosquito infected with P. vivax bites a human delivering spores that infect human liver cells and reproduce to form Sporozoans.
2. Sporozoans enter the bloodstream from the liver, invade red blood cells, multiply rapidly and then burst.
3. Mosquito bites a human and picks up Sporozoans.
4. Sporozoans grow in the mosquito's gut and release large numbers of spores.
5. Spores move into the mosquito's mouth.

What three groups can scientists use to organize protists based on shared traits?

1. Producers
2. Heterotrophs that can move
3. Heterotrophs that cannot move

What is the name for protists that convert the sun's energy into food?

Algae

All types of algae have what color pigment?

Green

Where do most types of algae live?

In Water

What type of algae lives in shallow water along the shore?

Seaweed

What type of algae provides most of the world's oxygen?

Phytoplankton

The algae group most of the world's seaweeds belong to

Red Algae

The protist producers that use photosynthesis to make food

Algae

The main pigment in these algae cells is cholorophyll

Green Algae

The cell of this organism contains a glasslike substance called silica

Diatoms

Many individual protists living together as a group

Colony

Free-floating single-celled algae

Phytoplankton

Seaweeds that live in cool climates

Brown Algae

Name four places where green algae live

1. In water or moist soil
2. In melting snow
3. On tree trunks
4. Inside other organisms

Individual cells of some green algae live in groups called what?

Colonies

Name three facts about brown algae

1. Found in cool climates
2. Attach to rocks
3. Have chlorophyll

Where are diatoms found?

Salt water and fresh water

The cell walls of diatoms contain what?

Silica

What are the whip-like strands on a dinoflagellate that cause the cells to spin through water called?

Flagella

Where do most dinoflagellates get their energy from?

Photosynthesis

A few dinoflagellates, however, are what? Name them (3).

1. Consumers
2. Decomposers
3. Parasites

Why don't euglenoids fit easily into one protist group?

Because euglenoids can get food in several ways

What are mobile protists sometimes called?

Protozoans

Where can amoebas be found?

Fresh and salt water; in soil; as parasites on animals

What does pseudopedia mean?

False feet

What two things do amoeba use pseudopedia for?

1. To move
2. To catch food

How is a food vacuole formed?

By the amoeba surrounding the food with its pseudopedia (false feet)

What is the purpose of a food vacuole?

So the enzymes can move into the vacuole to digest the food which can then be passed into the amoeba

Tiny, hairlike structures

Cilia

These have shells that look like glass

Radiolarians

This protist can live in the digestive tract of vertebrates

Giardia Lamblia

This controls the functions of the ciliate's cell

Macronucleus

These have snail-like shells

Foraminiferans

What does the term mutualism mean?

One organism living closely with another organism to help each other live

What are the two uses for cilia?

1. To move a protist forward by beating the tiny hair-like structures back and forth.
2. For feeding. The cilia sweep the food towards the protists' food passageway.

In a ciliate, what passes genes to another paramecium during sexual reproduction?

Micronucleus

Name two characteristics of spore-forming protists

1. Absorb nutrients from their host.
2. Have no cilia or flagella so cannot move on their own.

Besides water, where do water molds live?

Moist soil or other organisms

What are the two ways water molds get their food?

1. Eating dead matter (decomposers)
2. Eating their hosts (parasites)

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