Protists belong to which kingdom?
The number of cells most protists are made of
The term used for all protists because their cells each have a nucleus
Name two protists
Pretzel slime mold, ulva, zooflagellate, paramecium
Traits that can differ among protists
Most are single celled, but some are multi cellular
Some live in colonies
Some produce their own food
Some eat organisms or decaying matter
Some can control their movements and others cannot
How do protists differ from other eukaryotic organisms?
less complex and do not have specialized tissues
What function do chloroplasts perform in protist producers?
They capture energy from the sun
What is the term for the process protists use to make their own food?
Name two ways protists get food
Protists get food by producing it or by getting it from their environment
What is a protist that makes its own food called?
What is a protist that cannot make its own food but has to get it from its environment?
What is the name of a heterotroph which invades other organisms to get nutrients?
What is the name of the organism that is invaded by a parasite?
Protist heterotrophs that breakdown dead matter for energy are called what?
What do many protist heterotrophs eat?
Small living organisms such as bacteria, yeast, or other protists
In what three ways do protist heterotrophs get food?
1. eating small living organisms
2. breaking down dead organic matter
3. Invading another organisms
Name one example of a parasite causing harm to its host
The mid 1800's potato famine in Ireland
In asexual reproduction, how many parents are there?
In asexual reproduction, what process do single-celled protists use to divide into two cells?
What process do single-celled protists use in asexual reproduction to make more than two offspring from one parent?
How do paramecia sometimes reproduce sexually?
What is conjugation?
Conjugation is when two protists reproduce sexually. (They join together and exchange genetic material by using a small second nucleus. Then they divide to produce 4 protists that have new combinations of genetic material)
When will a protist that normally reproduces asexually reproduce sexually?
When environmental conditions are stressful, such as when there is little food and water. Some Protist reproduction also alternates with each generation.
What is an example of a protist with a complex reproductive cycle?
Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). This protist causes Malaria
Summarize the five steps it takes for Plasmodium vivax to complete its reproductive cycle
1. Mosquito infected with P. vivax bites a human delivering spores that infect human liver cells and reproduce to form Sporozoans.
2. Sporozoans enter the bloodstream from the liver, invade red blood cells, multiply rapidly and then burst.
3. Mosquito bites a human and picks up Sporozoans.
4. Sporozoans grow in the mosquito's gut and release large numbers of spores.
5. Spores move into the mosquito's mouth.
What three groups can scientists use to organize protists based on shared traits?
2. Heterotrophs that can move
3. Heterotrophs that cannot move
What is the name for protists that convert the sun's energy into food?
All types of algae have what color pigment?
Where do most types of algae live?
What type of algae lives in shallow water along the shore?
What type of algae provides most of the world's oxygen?
The algae group most of the world's seaweeds belong to
The protist producers that use photosynthesis to make food
The main pigment in these algae cells is cholorophyll
The cell of this organism contains a glasslike substance called silica
Many individual protists living together as a group
Free-floating single-celled algae
Seaweeds that live in cool climates
Name four places where green algae live
1. In water or moist soil
2. In melting snow
3. On tree trunks
4. Inside other organisms
Individual cells of some green algae live in groups called what?
Name three facts about brown algae
1. Found in cool climates
2. Attach to rocks
3. Have chlorophyll
Where are diatoms found?
Salt water and fresh water
The cell walls of diatoms contain what?
What are the whip-like strands on a dinoflagellate that cause the cells to spin through water called?
Where do most dinoflagellates get their energy from?
A few dinoflagellates, however, are what? Name them (3).
Why don't euglenoids fit easily into one protist group?
Because euglenoids can get food in several ways
What are mobile protists sometimes called?
Where can amoebas be found?
Fresh and salt water; in soil; as parasites on animals
What does pseudopedia mean?
What two things do amoeba use pseudopedia for?
1. To move
2. To catch food
How is a food vacuole formed?
By the amoeba surrounding the food with its pseudopedia (false feet)
What is the purpose of a food vacuole?
So the enzymes can move into the vacuole to digest the food which can then be passed into the amoeba
Tiny, hairlike structures
These have shells that look like glass
This protist can live in the digestive tract of vertebrates
This controls the functions of the ciliate's cell
These have snail-like shells
What does the term mutualism mean?
One organism living closely with another organism to help each other live
What are the two uses for cilia?
1. To move a protist forward by beating the tiny hair-like structures back and forth.
2. For feeding. The cilia sweep the food towards the protists' food passageway.
In a ciliate, what passes genes to another paramecium during sexual reproduction?
Name two characteristics of spore-forming protists
1. Absorb nutrients from their host.
2. Have no cilia or flagella so cannot move on their own.
Besides water, where do water molds live?
Moist soil or other organisms
What are the two ways water molds get their food?
1. Eating dead matter (decomposers)
2. Eating their hosts (parasites)