Is not present at birth; you acquire immunity to a specific antigen only when you have been exposed to that antigen or receive antibodies from another source
Naturally Aquired: Develops in response to antigen exposure. Artificially acquired: Develops after administration of an antigen. These activities stimulate an immune response and promote immunity to that particular antigen.
The clumping of red blood cells due to interactions between surface antigens and plasma antibodies
Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens.
A hypersensitivity reaction due to the binding of antigens to immunoglobulins (IgE) on the surfaces of mast cells; the release of histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandins by mast cells then causes widespread inflammation; a sudden decline in blood pressure may occur, producing anaphylactic shock.
Level of antibody activity in the plasma
Antigen binding sites
Formed by the free tips of the two variable segments of the antibody molecule.
Antigenic determinant sites
Specific portions of its exposed surface that antibodies bind to. They don't bind to the entire antigen.
The immune system usually recognizes but ignores normal antigens found in the body. When the recognition system malfunctions, however, activated B cells may make antibodies against normal body cells and tissues. These are called autoantibodies. The condition produced depends on the specific antigen attacked by autoantibodies.
Lymphocytes capable of differentiating into plasmocytes (plasma cells), which produce antibodies.
are found on CD4 T cells. CD4 T cells respond to antigens presented by Class II MHC proteins
found on CD8 T cells. CD8 T cells respond to antigens presentd by Class I MHC proteins.
The attraction of phagocyte cells to the source of abnormal chemicals in tissue fluids
Class I MHC
Are always present in the membranes of all nucleated cells
Class II MHC
Are present only in the membranes of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes
A system of 11 plasma proteins that interact in a chain reaction after exposure to activated antibodies or the surfaces of certain pathogens; complement proteins promote cell lysis, phagocytes, and other defense mechanisms.
Cytotoxic T cells
Lymphocytes involved in cell-mediated immunity that kill target cells by direct contact or by the secretion of lymph toxins; also called killer T cells and Tc cells.
Helper T cells
Lymphocytes whose secretions and other activities coordinate cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunities; also called TH cells.
result from (1) problems with the embryological development of lymphoid organs and tissues; (2) an infection with a virus that depresses immune function; or (3) treatment with, or exposure to, immunosuppressive agents, such as radiation or drugs.
Localized, tissue-level response that tends to limit the spread of an injury or infection.
Peptides released by virus-infected cells, especially lymphocytes, that slow viral replication and make other cells more resistant to viral infection
Peptides, released by activated monocytes and lymphocytes, that assist in the coordination of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunities
Lymphoid organs that monitor the composition of lymph
A phagocytic cell of the monocyte-macrophage system
Natural (innate) immunity
Genetically determined--no prior exposure or antibody production involved.
Antigens my bind to the sites that bacteria/viruses have to bind to, making the virus or toxin incapable of attaching itself to a cell.
These lymphocytes attack foreign cells, body cells infected with viruses, and cancer cells that appear in normal tissues.
An effect of coating an object with antibodies; the attraction and enhancement of phagocytosis
Naturally acquired: Conferred by transfer of material antibodies across placenta or in breast milk. Artificially acquired: Conferred by administration of antibodies to combat infection.
A flood of secretory, protein containing vesicles produced at the Golgi apparatus that travel through the cytoplasm toward the cell surface
An activated B cell that secretes antibodies; plasmocyte
Right lymphatic duct
Collects lymph from the right side of the body superior to the diaphragm (smaller than the thoracic duct)
A lymphoid organ important for the phagocytes of red blood cells, the immune response, and lympohcyte production
Suppressor T cells
Lymphocytes that inhibit B cell activation and the secretion of antibodies by plasma cells
Collect lymph fro the body inferior to the diaphragm and from the lest side of the body superior to the diaphragm.
A lymphoid organ, the site of T cell formation