In an _____ process, photosynthesis _____ carbon, whereas cellular respiration is an _____ process that _____ carbon.
endergonic ... reduces ... exergonic ... oxidizes
Visible light is a small portion of electromagnetic energy that is derived from sunlight. It occurs between _____.
UV radiation and infrared radiation
What purpose is directly served by chlorophyll a during photosynthesis?
It allows for the conversion of energy.
Photosystems consist of a number of light-harvesting pigments. As sunlight strikes these pigments, an electron is donated to the primary electron acceptor. What replaces this flow of electrons?
electrons that are donated as water is split
Which of the following is the correct flow of electrons through the two photosystems in the thylakoid membrane?
P680 P700 NADP+
During photosynthesis, _____ is produced by the light reactions and then consumed by the Calvin cycle.
During photosynthesis, six molecules of CO2 are reduced to one molecule of glucose. How many molecules of ATP and NADPH are required to fuel this process?
18 ATP and 12 NADPH
Photorespiration is an inefficient process that occurs when plants close their stomata to avoid dehydration in arid climates. C4 and CAM plants have adapted to this situation because _____.
they fix CO2 into a four-carbon compound. This creates a steeper concentration gradient within the mesophyll cells
_____ releases energy that is used to pump hydrogen ions from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment.
electron transport chain
Energized electrons from ____ enter an electron transport chain and are then used to reduce NADP+.
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.
transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs