Which of the following is the best definition of essential nutrient?
nutrients a person must consume to maintain health
The three main functions of the nutrients include all of the following except:
speed up our metabolism
All of the following statements are true regarding components of a nutrition study that provides reliable information, EXCEPT:
Personal testimonials are appropriate type of data to collect
Which of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. does NOT bear a relationship to diet?
Pneumonia and influenza
For most nutrients, it is difficult to exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) by consuming food.
According to the Food Guide Pyramid, approximately what percentage of the day's food servings could be derived from plant foods?
A food label ingredient list reads: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt and cornstarch. What item would be found in the lowest amount in the food?
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
They can be made without and FDA approval
When you eat a taco, the tortilla, meat, cheese, lettuce, and tomato are broken apart, releasing the nutrients and other food components they contain. This process is called:
Which of the following is generally NOT digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions?
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
Which of the following statements describes the glycemic effect of foods?
A measure of how fast and high the food causes the blood glucose to rise
In general, a diet that is modified by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in
This lipid is an important component of cell membranes, forming a lipid bilayer by orienting the water-soluble portion towards the water environment:
All of the following foods contain cholesterol except:
potato chips cooked in partially hydrogenated corn oil
An oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans
If you choose a high-fat, high-salt, fast-food lunch, your nutrient intake for the day cannot meet the recommendations for a healthy diet.
Which group consists only of nutrients that are classified as energy-yielding nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
Based on this illustration, which nutrient class makes up the greatest proportion of body weight?
Which of these statements about essential nutrients is false?
If you do not get enough of them in your diet, your body will synthesize enough to meet its needs.
Why it is better to obtain your nutrients from foods than from dietary supplements?
Dietary supplements are more likely to contain toxic amounts of nutrients.
Foods provide phytochemicals and zoochemicals
Foods provide pleasurable tastes and aromas.
Which of these factors can limit the availability of food?
A diet that follows the principles of variety, balance, and moderation _________
can include all kinds of foods
Which of these sources would be most likely to exaggerate the beneficial effects of a dietary supplement?
a pamphlet published by the manufacturer
When the scientific method is used, a hypothesis is first proposed and then tested through experimentation. Which of the following hypotheses can be tested by means of experiments that use a quantifiable measure?
Eating an apple a day will lower blood cholesterol.
The information in this graph was collected in an epidemiological study. Which of the following statements is true?
A higher incidence of coronary heart disease is associated with a higher intake of saturated fat.
In a scientific experiment, a group that is identical to the experimental group in every way except that its members do not receive the treatment being tested is called _________
a control group
It is better to meet your vitamin C needs with an orange than a dietary supplement because:
Dietary supplements do not offer all the benefits of an orange.
You ate a 400-calorie cinnamon roll for a snack. Which of the following would be the best choice for lunch to help you maintain a nutritious diet for the day?
A salad with low fat dressing
This diagram illustrates the steps of:
the scientific method
Nutrition recommendations benefit individual and public health because
They are used to both plan diets and evaluate what we are eating
The original purpose of the RDAs was to make recommendations on amounts of energy and on specific nutrients that were most likely to be deficient in people's diets.
MyPyramid DOES NOT helps us follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans by:
Telling us how to prepare, handle and store food safely
The portion of the food label that would help you find foods that are low in saturated fat is
The total fat section of the label
The place you would find information about whether the product contained nuts would be
On the ingredient list
Use this label to determine which of the following statements about the amount of sodium and calcium in this product is true:
This product is high in sodium and high in calcium
Atoms, molecules and cells are not related to one another because they are all different types of units of matter.
Which of the following is one of the ways that the endocrine system interacts with the digestive system?
Secretes hormones that regulate how much we eat
Enzymes signal the pancreas and gallbladder to secrete digestive substances into the small intestine
Food entering the stomach sends a signal to the brain to release______ which triggers the release of gastric juice.
Which is true of enriched grains?
Some of the nutrients lost or diminished in processing are added back
The bonds that link the sugar units in starch and fiber
are not the same because the bond in fiber are hard to break down
Which is NOT a step involved in starch digestion?
Salivary amylase breaks down starch in the stomach
Indigestible carbohydrates are good for health because
They inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria
Blood glucose levels should be kept in the normal range to prevent the risk of Type I Diabetes.
Health conditions that are common in people with uncontrolled diabetes include all the following
kidney failure, increased risk of heart disease, blindness
Which of the following health problems is NOT caused by a deficiency of essential fatty acids?
Reduction in the absorption of water soluble vitamins
Eating fat can increase the number of calories you consume because
Fat contains 9 calories per gram while carbs and protein are only 4 calories per gram
Ingredient lists on packages are the best way to identify if a food is low in fat and cholesterol.
As indicated in this diagram, inflammation that occurs in response to an injury to the artery wall precipitates the development of _________ which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
ooking at the graph titled "What Scientists See", which of the following is correct:
Since the 1950's there has been a decline in saturated fat consumed from milk but there has also been a decline in calcium lessening the public health benefit.
The best definition of the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is
to recommend the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and prevent deficiencies
Which of the following pairs correctly links the daily reference intake with its definition?
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are intakes that are sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group.
Which of the following factors does not play a role in determining an individual's energy needs?
The amount of food that they eat
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) describe healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the Dietary Guidelines and the MyPyramid?
The Dietary Guidelines provides recommendations for a healthy diet and the MyPyramid translates these recommendations into food choices
Which of the following statements is correct?
For those who have lost weight and want to keep it off, 60 to 90 minutes of moderate activity per day is recommended.
The Dietary Guidelines emphasize that the key to weight management is total calories consumed rather than the relative proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet
A personalized MyPyramid can be obtained by submitting the following information at the mypyramid.gov site:
your weight, height, age, gender and activity
Identify the process that is regarded as absorption and not digestion.
Glucose moves into the cells of the small intestine and then into the blood stream.
The lining of the small intestine is the area where nutrients in food may be digested and absorbed. This lining is best described by having a
brushy surface made of epithelial tissue.
What chemical substance initiates the release of other chemicals that ultimately result in digestion/absorption?
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) results when the acidic contents of the stomach regurgitate into the esophagus creating a burning sensation because unlike the stomach, the cells lining the esophagus do not
The transit time for food in the large intestine is related to the amount of water and fiber in the diet because
water and fiber are responsible for the size (mass) and softness of the stool.
An individual who eats food contaminated with bacteria may be protected from the ill effects of the bacteria because of the presence of:
phagocytes and lymphocytes found in the small intestines
Foods like peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soy, and shellfish may contain proteins that act as foreign antigens leading to an immune reaction in the gastrointestinal tracts of some individuals.
A person who is allergic to milk protein can avoid the allergic reaction by drinking lactose free milk.
The addition of nutrients back to a food after they were removed by processing is referred to as _______.
In which of the following stages of processing is corn considered in a whole grain state?
A corn on the cob
Which of the following category of complex carbohydrates is not digestible because they cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes?
Which type of fiber has a laxative effect by adding bulk to fecal matter as it passes, unchanged, through the gastrointestinal tract?
Which of the following best describes the effects of lactose intolerance on those who consume dairy products?
the undigested lactose passes into the large intestine, where it draws in water, is metabolized by bacteria, producing gas and causing abdominal distension, gas, cramping, and diarrhea
All of the following best describe the health impact of indigestible carbohydrates as a food source for bacteria in the colon, except?
enhancement of nutrient absorption in the colon
Which of the following hormones assists in normalizing blood glucose levels when blood sugar drops below normal?
All of the following potentially adverse health conditions result when the body lacks sufficient dietary carbohydrates, except?
Which of the following are factors to consider in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus?
a diet providing unrefined carbohydrates and limited consumption of refined carbohydrates.
a limited intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol
weight management coupled with exercise and diet
Symptoms and complications of uncontrolled diabetes include all of the following except:
What term is used to describe the process whereby bacteria on the teeth metabolize carbohydrates, producing tooth-damaging acids?
Which of the following 3200-calorie diets is the least fattening?
high fat diet, high protein diet, high carbohydrate diet
Which type of dietary fiber blocks bile reabsorption and promotes dietary cholesterol excretion?
Which of the following best represents how the typical US diet pattern compares to carbohydrate intake recommendations?
diet low in fiber, high in added sugar
The Adequate Intake for fiber is 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women; what is the typical intake for Americans?
about 15 g per day.
Which statement is correct?
The total grams of fat in the American diet has stayed relatively constant over the past 40 years.
The family name of a fatty acid (i.e., omega 3, 6, 9, etc.) is related to the location of the first double bond counting from the methyl (CH3) end of the fatty acid chain.
Which of the following statements about food fats is correct?
Coconut oil contains mostly saturated fatty acids
Fatty acids that are classified as essential cannot be made by the body; therefore, they must be obtained through the diet.
Which of these statements regarding the digestion of fat is correct?
Bile emulsifies fat while pancreatic lipase breaks the bond between the glycerol and the fatty acids of fat in the small intestine.
Which of the following statements is correct?
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) Lipoproteins pick up cholesterol from cells and transport it to the liver so that it can be eliminated from the body.
Lipid stored in fat cells (adipose tissue) provides many benefits including
protection of organs and insulation for maintaining body temperature
In the event that you eat fewer calories than you need, which of the following is likely to occur?
the body will send hormones signaling the release of fat from adipose cells for energy use
Look at the graph below. If the ice cream were fortified with twice as much vitamin D, the ice cream would be considered more nutrient dense than the milk.
Essential nutrients are chemicals found in food that you must consume to meet your dietary requirements
Manufacturers voluntarily fortified foods with Vitamin C to:
create a food that may be more nutritious but inadvertently may contribute to the overconsumption of Vitamin C.
Zoochemicals and phytochemicals may be added to foods to:
increase the health-promoting benefits of the food.
A carbohydrate-rich oat bar contains 20 grams of carbohydrate and is fortified with 5 grams of a food fiber which is a non digestible complex carbohydrate. How many Calories have you eaten when you consume this high fiber carbohydrate-rich oat bar:
Dehydration is an example of a deficiency disease that:
occurs quickly after water is withheld from the diet.
You have two relatives, both 55 years old, and both have always eaten a diet of primarily fast food. One of these relatives has severe heart disease and the other has low cholesterol levels and no sign of heart disease. What is the best explanation for this?
These relatives do not share the same genetic predisposition for heart disease.
An elderly man who is otherwise healthy presents as slightly overweight and is diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. This would be best explained by which of the following?
The man has been eating food that exceeds his Calorie requirement, but not does meet his iron requirement.
Two college students are eating the same number of Calories and after a diet analysis their nutrient intakes are very similar. One student eats on the run has uses both vitamin and mineral supplements to meet his dietary needs. The other student eats a wide variety of healthy foods and does not take any supplements. Which of these statements is true?
The student eating the diet with variety gets additional health benefits from components in the foods that are healthful but not necessarily essential.