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Which of the following is the best definition of essential nutrient?

nutrients a person must consume to maintain health

The three main functions of the nutrients include all of the following except:

speed up our metabolism

All of the following statements are true regarding components of a nutrition study that provides reliable information, EXCEPT:

Personal testimonials are appropriate type of data to collect

A slice of apple pie has the same nutrient density as eating a medium size apple.

FALSE

By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in highest amounts in most foods?

Water

Which of the following is NOT one of the six classes of nutrients?

Fiber

Which of the following CANNOT add fat to the body?

Inorganic nutrients

What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?

45-65%

What is the AMDR for fat?

20-35%

Which of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. does NOT bear a relationship to diet?

Pneumonia and influenza

For most nutrients, it is difficult to exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) by consuming food.

True

My Pyramid was designed to put the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines into practice.

True

Ingredients on a food label are listed in descending order by weight.

True

Which of the following is the most nutrient dense food relative to calcium content?

nonfat milk

According to the Food Guide Pyramid, approximately what percentage of the day's food servings could be derived from plant foods?

75

Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with

diabetes

Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?

Whole-grain

General features of the legumes include all of the following EXCEPT

they are high in fat

A food label ingredient list reads: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt and cornstarch. What item would be found in the lowest amount in the food?

cornstarch

Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?

They can be made without and FDA approval

When you eat a taco, the tortilla, meat, cheese, lettuce, and tomato are broken apart, releasing the nutrients and other food components they contain. This process is called:

digestion

Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?

very acidic

Which is the function of bile?

emulsifies fats

Which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?

vitamins

Which of the following is generally NOT digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions?

fiber

What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of hte small intestine?

villi

Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT

transmigration

Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?

lymphatic

Which of the following is most likely to result from insufficient intake of fiber?

constipation

What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?

heart

Starch and dietary fiber are classified as

compec carbohydrates

What is the sweetest tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?

fructose

What is the primary storage form of the carbohydrate in the body?

glycogen

What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?

small intestines

What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?

liver

What is the primary function of insulin?

lowers blood glucose levels

All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance EXCEPT

constipation

When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?

glucagon

Which of the following statements describes the glycemic effect of foods?

A measure of how fast and high the food causes the blood glucose to rise

In general, a diet that is modified by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in

fiber

This lipid is an important component of cell membranes, forming a lipid bilayer by orienting the water-soluble portion towards the water environment:

phospholipid

The majority of lipid digestion occurs here:

small intestine

Each gram of fat from the diet contains ______ calories:

9

All of the following foods contain cholesterol except:

potato chips cooked in partially hydrogenated corn oil

HDLS __________

return cholesterol from other lipoproteins and body cells to the liver.

In what form are most dietary lipids found?

triglycerides

Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?

monounsaturated

An oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from

cis to trans

Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?

soluble in both water and fat

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?

synthesized by the body

If you choose a high-fat, high-salt, fast-food lunch, your nutrient intake for the day cannot meet the recommendations for a healthy diet.

FALSE

Which of these foods has the lowest nutrient density?

orange soda

This graph indicates that _________

low-fat milk contains more calcium per calorie than ice cream

Which group consists only of nutrients that are classified as energy-yielding nutrients?

carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

Which group consists only of nutrients that are considered micronutrients?

vitamins and minerals

Which nutrient class provides the most Calories per gram?

lipids

Based on this illustration, which nutrient class makes up the greatest proportion of body weight?

water

Which of these statements about essential nutrients is false?

If you do not get enough of them in your diet, your body will synthesize enough to meet its needs.

Why it is better to obtain your nutrients from foods than from dietary supplements?

Dietary supplements are more likely to contain toxic amounts of nutrients.
Foods provide phytochemicals and zoochemicals
Foods provide pleasurable tastes and aromas.

Which of these factors can limit the availability of food?

socioeconomic status
health status
living conditions

A diet that follows the principles of variety, balance, and moderation _________

can include all kinds of foods

Which of these sources would be most likely to exaggerate the beneficial effects of a dietary supplement?

a pamphlet published by the manufacturer

When the scientific method is used, a hypothesis is first proposed and then tested through experimentation. Which of the following hypotheses can be tested by means of experiments that use a quantifiable measure?

Eating an apple a day will lower blood cholesterol.

The information in this graph was collected in an epidemiological study. Which of the following statements is true?

A higher incidence of coronary heart disease is associated with a higher intake of saturated fat.

In a scientific experiment, a group that is identical to the experimental group in every way except that its members do not receive the treatment being tested is called _________

a control group

A glass of milk is more nutrient dense than a can of soda because:

it contains calcium

Foods are fortified to help eliminate nutrient deficiencies.

TRUE

It is better to meet your vitamin C needs with an orange than a dietary supplement because:

Dietary supplements do not offer all the benefits of an orange.

Taste is one of the factors that would determine the foods you eat at a family picnic.

TRUE

The following nutrients provide energy:

Protein, carbohydrates and lipids

Water is involved in maintenance and formation of the shape and structure of the body.

TRUE

Excess calories/energy is not a cause of malnutrition.

FALSE

Variety is important in a diet because:

No single food can provide all the nutrients needed.

You ate a 400-calorie cinnamon roll for a snack. Which of the following would be the best choice for lunch to help you maintain a nutritious diet for the day?

A salad with low fat dressing

Moderation

Requires you to watch your portion sizes

The difference between a hypothesis and a theory is

Experimentation is required to support a theory

Epidemiology

Looks for patterns in populations

Control groups

Allow for comparison to see if what was being tested had any effect

This diagram illustrates the steps of:
observation>hypothesis>experiment>theory

the scientific method

Information in advertisements

Is intended to sell a product

Nutrition recommendations benefit individual and public health because

They are used to both plan diets and evaluate what we are eating

The original purpose of the RDAs was to make recommendations on amounts of energy and on specific nutrients that were most likely to be deficient in people's diets.

TRUE

RDAs and AIs are used for:

Identifying the amount of nutrients most healthy people should consume

The ULs

Suggest the maximum intake level to avoid the risk of adverse health effects

Gender, age and activity level all affect your energy needs (EER).

TRUE

MyPyramid DOES NOT helps us follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans by:

Telling us how to prepare, handle and store food safely

Examples of discretionary calories are:

A donut

Serving sizes are standardized on food labels to allow consumers to compare products.

TRUE

The portion of the food label that would help you find foods that are low in saturated fat is

The total fat section of the label

The place you would find information about whether the product contained nuts would be

On the ingredient list

Structure/function claims on dietary supplement labels are never misleading.

FALSE

Use this label to determine which of the following statements about the amount of sodium and calcium in this product is true:

This product is high in sodium and high in calcium

Atoms, molecules and cells are not related to one another because they are all different types of units of matter.

FALSE

Which of the following is one of the ways that the endocrine system interacts with the digestive system?

Secretes hormones that regulate how much we eat

Absorption is the process that takes place before digestion in the digestive system.

FALSE

The liver is one of the organs of the digestive system.

TRUE

Enzymes signal the pancreas and gallbladder to secrete digestive substances into the small intestine

FALSE

Swallowing moves food through the GI tract.

FALSE

Villi contain which of the following:

Lacteal

All of the following help destroy antigens EXCEPT

allergens

People with heartburn should avoid all of the following EXCEPT

Banana

Food entering the stomach sends a signal to the brain to release______ which triggers the release of gastric juice.

gastrin

Whole grain products include

A, B, C

Which is true of enriched grains?

Some of the nutrients lost or diminished in processing are added back

Foods high in added refined sugar

contain empty calories

Glycogen is the storage form of sugar in plants.

FALSE

The bonds that link the sugar units in starch and fiber

are not the same because the bond in fiber are hard to break down

Beans tend to be high in soluble fiber.

TRUE

Which is NOT a step involved in starch digestion?

Salivary amylase breaks down starch in the stomach

Which is not a good food source of calcium for someone who is lactose intolerant?

Milk

Indigestible carbohydrates are good for health because

They inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria

Fiber causes a greater glycemic response than refined carbohydrates.

FALSE

Blood glucose levels should be kept in the normal range to prevent the risk of Type I Diabetes.

FALSE

Blood glucose levels

Rise when glucagon is released

Health conditions that are common in people with uncontrolled diabetes include all the following

kidney failure, increased risk of heart disease, blindness

Fiber benefits colon health in these possible ways EXCEPT

by not changing the intestinal microflora

The American diet

contains 32 tsp of sugar on average

MyPyramid recommends these carbohydrate sources

whole grains, leafy vegetables and dried fruits

The food label does not provide information on added sugar.

FALSE

The fat in ice cream

Makes it tasty due to the rich taste

The following are invisible sources of fat in the diet EXCEPT for

Butter

Saturated fatty acids contain double bonds

FALSE

Most phospholipids in the body are found in

Cell membranes

Cholesterol is an essential dietary nutrient because it cannot be made in the body.

FALSE

Foods high in cholesterol include

Eggs

Bile

Acts as an emulsifier

LDL cholesterol

Transport cholesterol to cells

Adipose tissue

Cushions the internal organs

Eating fish regularly will do all of the following EXCEPT

Increases inflammation

After dietary fat has been absorbed, it is immediately stored in adipose tissue.

FALSE

Which of the following health problems is NOT caused by a deficiency of essential fatty acids?

Reduction in the absorption of water soluble vitamins

As macrophages fill with oxidized cholesterol, they become foam cells.

TRUE

Eating fat can increase the number of calories you consume because

Fat contains 9 calories per gram while carbs and protein are only 4 calories per gram

Fatty fish is healthier than fatty beef because it contains omega 3 fatty acids.

TRUE

Ingredient lists on packages are the best way to identify if a food is low in fat and cholesterol.

FALSE

As indicated in this diagram, inflammation that occurs in response to an injury to the artery wall precipitates the development of _________ which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

plaque

Fatty acid chains are broken down in the mitochondria to help generate ATP.

TRUE

ooking at the graph titled "What Scientists See", which of the following is correct:

Since the 1950's there has been a decline in saturated fat consumed from milk but there has also been a decline in calcium lessening the public health benefit.

The best definition of the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is

to recommend the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and prevent deficiencies

Which of the following pairs correctly links the daily reference intake with its definition?

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are intakes that are sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group.

Which of the following factors does not play a role in determining an individual's energy needs?

The amount of food that they eat

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) describe healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake.

TRUE

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the Dietary Guidelines and the MyPyramid?

The Dietary Guidelines provides recommendations for a healthy diet and the MyPyramid translates these recommendations into food choices

Which of the following statements is correct?

For those who have lost weight and want to keep it off, 60 to 90 minutes of moderate activity per day is recommended.

The Dietary Guidelines emphasize that the key to weight management is total calories consumed rather than the relative proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet

TRUE

A personalized MyPyramid can be obtained by submitting the following information at the mypyramid.gov site:

your weight, height, age, gender and activity

Looking at the Calories in this food, what percent of this macaroni and cheese is fat?

44%

The j-shaped organ that receives chewed and swallowed food for additional digestion is the:

stomach

Identify the organ that is NOT a part of the digestive system:

spleen

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