Derived from impressionism; depicted modern life itself, focusing on the social life and leisured activities of the urban middle and lower classes. Artists: Edward Manet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissaro, Pierre-August Renoir, and Edgar Degas.
a cafe/ concert hall where patrons could enjoy a variety of popular entertainment, including singers, musicians, dancers, gymnasts, and animal shows.
Form and structure was more important than effort to record the impression of the moment. A term used to describe European painting that followed impressionism; the term actually applies to several styles of art all of which to some extent derived from impressionism or stood in reaction to impressionism. Artists: Georges Seurat, Paul Cezanne, Vincent Van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin.
developed pointillism in art
word coined to describe the works of Pablo Picasso
Friedrich Nietzsche (German)
Sought less to change values than to probe their sources in the human character.
The Birth of Tragedy
Written by Friedrich Nietzsche, the strength for the heroic life and the highest artistic achievement arises from sources beyond rationality.
Thus Spake Zarathustra
Written by Friedrich Nietzsche; criticized democracy and Christianity. He announced the death of God and proclaimed the coming of the Overman (Ubermensch). He sought a return to the heroism that he associated with Greek life in the Homeric age. He thought the values of Christianity and of bourgeois morality prevented humankind from achieving life on a heroic level.
The Genealogy of Morals
Nietzsche sought to discover not what is good and what is evil, but the social and psychological sources of judgement of good and evil.
Father of psychoanalysis, thought human beings are sexual creatures from birth to adulthood, concluded dreams allow unconscious wishes, desires, and drives that had been excluded from everyday conscious life.
consists of amoral, irrational, driving instincts fro sexual gratification, aggression, and general physical and sensual pleasure.
embodies the external moral imperatives and expectations imposed on the personality by society and culture.
indicates between the impulses of the id and the asceticism of the superego and allows the personality to cope with the inner and outer demands of its existence.
Carl Jung (Swiss)
Dissenter of Freud, Jung questioned the primacy of sexual drives in forming personality and in contributing to mental disorder. Jung tended towards mysticism and saw positive values in religion.
Max Weber (German)
German sociologist regarded the emergence of rationalism throughout society as the major development of human history. Believed that in modern society people derive their own self-images and sense of personal worth from their positions in these organizations.
psychologist who explored activity of crowds and mobs
argued that people do not pursue rationally perceived goals but are led to action by collectively shared ideals.
Durkheim and Wallas
deeply interested in the necessity of shared values and activities and society
the pseudoscientific theory that biological features of race determine human character and worth
Count Arthur de Gorbineau (French)
Enunciated the first important theory of race as the major determinant of human history. He claimed it had unwisely intermarried with the inferior yellow and black races, thus diluting the greatness and ability that originally existed in its blood.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
He championed the concept of biological determinism through race, but believed that through genetics the human race could be improved and even that a superior race could be developed. He was anti-semitic
Late- Century nationalism was used to overcome the pluralism of class, religion, and geography
The movement to create a Jewish state in Palestine.
founded the zionist movement
Contagious Diseases Acts
In England, assumed that women were inferior to men and treated them as less than rational human beings. The laws literally put women's bodies under the control of male customers, male physicians, and male law enforcement personnel.
Ladies' National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts
led by Josephine Butler actively opposed the laws
General Austrian Women's Association
led by Auguste Ficke combated the legal regulation of prostitution which would have put women under the control of police authorities.
Mother's Protection League
contended that both married and unmarried mothers required the help of the state, including leaves for pregnancy and child care.
Wrote The Century of the Child, maintained motherhood is so crucial to society that the government rather than husbands should support mothers and their children.
Englishwoman who pioneered contraception clinics in poor districts of London
Wrote A Room of One's Own--became one of the fundamental texts of the twentieth century feminist literature.