Cardiovascular systems & Lymphoid System - Immunity

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lung

Which of these organs is NOT found in the mediastinum?

1. esophagus
2. trachea
3. lung
4. pericardial sac

right atrium

Blood flowing in the vena cava will next enter the ____.

1. right ventricle
2. left ventricle
3. right atrium
4. left atrium

right atrium

Cardiac veins empty their blood into the __________.

1. left atrium
2. right atrium
3. left ventricle
4. right ventricle

calcium

During the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential, which ion is entering the cardiac muscle cell?

1. potassium
2. calcium
3. sodium
4. hydrogen

R

Which wave is the largest in the electrocardiogram?

1. P
2. R
3. Q
4. S

SA node

The conducting system in the heart begins in the ____.

1. AV bundle
2. AV node
3. Purkinje fibers
4. SA node

closing of the mitral valve
[ventricular systole = the contraction of the heart ventricles. It begins with the first heart sound]

Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the aortic valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. opening of the aortic valve
4. closing of the mitral valve

The first is true; the second is false.

The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right; the left ventricle pumps more blood than the right. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

blood pressure

Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?

1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. blood pressure
4. end diastolic volume

increased end-systolic volume

Which of these responses by the heart will sympathetic stimulation NOT cause?

1. increased end-systolic volume
2. increased heart rate
3. increased cardiac output
4. increased stroke volume

capillaries

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are _____.

1. capillaries
2. arterioles
3. tunica intima
4. arteries

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. right ventricle
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
4. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure

forces more fluid across the endothelium

Elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure ____.

1. raises arterial pressure
2. lowers heart rate
3. raises heart rate
4. forces more fluid across the endothelium

medulla oblongata

Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

1. hypothalamus
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata
4. thalamus

an increase in urine production

Hemorrhage triggers ALL of these responses EXCEPT __________.


1. release of the venous reserve
2. an increase in urine production
3. an increase in heart rate
4. an increase in erythropoiesis

deoxygenated; to

The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.

1. oxygenated; from
2. oxygenated; to
3. deoxygenated; to
4. deoxygenated; from

coronary

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the aortic arch?

1. left subclavian
2. left carotid
3. brachiocephalic
4. coronary

femoral

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the abdominal aorta?

1. iliac
2. femoral
3. splenic
4. renal

ligamentum arteriosum

The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the _____.


1. fossa ovalis
2. foramen ovale
3. umbilical strand
4. ligamentum arteriosum

decrease in arterial wall stiffness

All of these changes in the cardiovascular system are commonly seen in aging EXCEPT _______.

1. decrease in hematocrit
2. decrease in arterial wall stiffness
3. decrease in cardiac output
4. decrease in valve efficiency

Lymphocytes

Which cell type is essential to the immune response?

1. monocytes
2. keratinocytes
3. lymphocytes
4. fibrocytes

Plasma & Interstitial fluid

The composition of lymph is most similar to __________.

Select ALL that apply:

1. gastric juice
2. blood
3. plasma
4. interstitial fluid

Y2K

All of these types of cells are lymphocytes EXCEPT ___________.

1. NK
2. Y2K
3. B
4. T

lymphocytes

Which of these defense cells are NOT phagocytic?

1. lymphocytes
2. neutrophils
3. macrophages
4. eosinophils

It must be acquired

Which of these is NOT a property of the immune response?

1. It may be cell-mediated.
3. It must be acquired.
3. It is triggered by an antigen.
4. It may be antibody-mediated

cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Which defense cells can specifically identify and directly kill disease cells?

1. suppressor T lymphocytes
2. cytotoxic T lymphocytes
3. plasma cells
4. B lymphocytes

helper T cells

Which defense cells secretes lymphokines that regulate immunity?

1. helper T cells
2. CD8 cells
3. memory T cells
4. B lymphocytes

B cells have all of these properties

B cells are __________.

1. capable of division
2. sensitized by exposure to antigen
3. activated by helper T cells
4. B cells have all of these properties

Immunoglobulin B

Each of these is a class of immunoglobulins EXCEPT __________.

1. Immunoglobulin A
2. Immunoglobulin M
3. Immunoglobulin G
4. Immunoglobulin B

allergy

Delayed hypersensitivity is a type of __________.

1. allergy
2. skin infection
3. immunodeficiency disease
4. autoimmune disease

closing of the mitral valve

Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the mitral valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. closing of the aortic valve
4. opening of the aortic valve

decreased ADH secretion

In the case of hemorrhage, the body mobilizes ALL these defenses EXCEPT _________.


1. increased peripheral resistance
2. increased heart rate
3. decreased ADH secretion
4. increased thirst

All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

The cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata control __________.

1. heart rate
2. cardiac contractility
3. peripheral resistance
4. All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

The Liver

Most of the plasma proteins required in the coagulation process are produced by __________.

1. the liver
2. lymph nodes
3. platelets
4. megakaryocytes

Purified platelets

If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.

1. plasma
2. packed RBCs
3. whole blood
4. purified platelets

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure
4. right ventricle

deoxygenated; to

The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.


1. deoxygenated; to
2. oxygenated; to
3. oxygenated; from
4. deoxygenated; from

Q-T interval

The duration of the ventricular action potential is approximately equal to the __________ interval in the electrocardiogram.

1. QRS duration
2. Q-T interval
3. PR interval
4. ST interval

SA node

The conducting system in the heart begins in the __________.

1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV node
3. SA node
4. AV bundle

left atrium

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the __________.

1. right atrium
2. pulmonary valve
3. pulmonary trunk
4. left atrium

end-systolic volume

The volume of blood remaining in the ventricle as diastole begins is called the __________.

1. stroke volume
2. cardiac reserve
3. end-systolic volume
4. end-diastolic volume

Radial

The brachial artery branches to form the ulnar and __________ arteries.

1. axillary
2. digital
3. palmar
4. radial

transport clotting factors

An important function of thrombocytes is to __________.

1. transport clotting factors
2. transport thrombopoietin
3. transport nutrients
4. transport blood gases

capillaries

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________.

1. capillaries
2. tunica intima
3. arteries
4. arterioles

aortic

The __________ valve prevents backward flow of blood into the left ventricle.


1. bicuspid
2. aortic
3. tricuspid
4. pulmonic

precapillary sphincters

Vasomotion refers to contraction-relaxation cycles of the __________.


1. precapillary sphincters
2. thoroughfare channels
3. arteriovenous anastomoses
4. venules

They are abundant.

Which of these statements about basophils is NOT true?


1. They promote inflammation.
2. They are cytoplasmic granules.
3. They are abundant.
4. They release histamine.

femoral arteries

Which of these arteries does NOT branch directly from the aorta?


1. left coronary artery
2. left carotid artery
3. femoral arteries
4. right coronary artery

hemoglobin

The most abundant protein in blood is __________.

1. hemoglobin
2. albumin
3. fibrinogen
4. immunoglobulin

All of these are formed elements of blood

The formed elements of blood consist of _________.

1. red blood cells
2. platelets
3. white blood cells
4. All of these are formed elements of blood

conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin

The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.


1. conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
2. release of PF-3
3. positive feedback of thrombin formation
4. adhesion of platelets to a damaged vessel wall

kidney

Which organ produces renin and erythropoietin to help maintain normal blood pressure and hematocrit?


1. brain
2. kidney
3. liver
4. adrenal

monocyte

The agranular leukocyte (agranulocyte) that is capable of phagocytosis is the __________.

1. neutrophil
2. monocyte
3. lymphocyte
4. eosinophil

visceral pericardium

The epicardium is also known as the __________.

1. visceral pericardium
2. myocardium
3. endocardium
4. parietal pericardium

blood pressure

Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?


1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. end diastolic volume
4. blood pressure

oxygenated; left

The pulmonary veins carry __________ blood to the __________ atrium.


1. deoxygenated; left
2. deoxygenated; right
3. oxygenated; left
4. oxygenated; right

clots slowly dissolve

During fibrinolysis __________.

1. clots slowly dissolve
2. fibrinogen is activated
3. damaged tissue is pulled together
4. emboli form

elastic

Arteries have a tissue in their middle and internal vessel walls that veins lack, called __________ tissue.


1. elastic
2. smooth muscle
3. endothelial
4. adventitial

neutrophils

The white blood cell type that most rapidly increases in number after a bacterial infection is the __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. eosinophils
3. neutrophils
4. monocytes

The pH is slightly acidic

EXCEPT for __________, the following statements about blood are true.

1. It contains about 55% plasma.
2. The viscosity is three to five times greater than water.
3. It contains dissolved gases.
4. The pH is slightly acidic.

B positive

A person with a type A positive blood type can safely receive blood from all of these donors EXCEPT __________.


1. B positive
2. O positive
3. A negative
4. A positive

protein

EXCEPT for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.

1. protein
2. glucose
3. sodium ion
4. water

Both statements are true.

The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood in the adult circulation; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood in the fetal circulation. Are these two statements true or false?


1. The first statement is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first statement is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

blood colloid osmotic pressure

Peripheral resistance depends on ALL of the following factors EXCEPT __________.

1. blood viscosity
2. blood vessel diameter
3. blood vessel length
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure

red blood cells

Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.


1. lymphocytes
2. megakaryocytes
3. red blood cells
4. neutrophils

increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

As the heart ages, which of these changes is NOT normally seen?

1. decreased cardiac output
2. coronary arteriosclerosis
3. decreased ejection fraction
4. increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

120 days

Red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation after about __________.

1. 1 year
2. 1 day
3. 120 days
4. 30 days

both the right vagus and sympathetic Nerves

Heart rate is controlled by __________.

1. the phrenic nerves
2. both the right vagus and sympathetic nerves
3. sympathetic nerves in the cardiac plexus
4. the right vagus nerve

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