Science Vocab- Chapters 17 +19

Created by CamilleSimone 

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29 terms

Atom

the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of the element

Nucleus

positively charged center of an atom the contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons

Proton

particle inside of an atom that has a charge of 1+

Neutron

neutral particle inside the nucleus of an atom

Electron

particle surrounding the center of an atom that has a charge of 1-

Electron cloud

area around the nucleus of an atom where the atom's electrons are most likely to be found

Atomic number

number of protons in an atom's nucleus

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

unit of measurement for atomic particles

Mass Number

sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

Isotope

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

Average Atomic Mass

weighted-average mass of the mixture of an element's isotopes

Periodic Table

organized list of all known elements that are arranged by increasing atomic number and by changes in chemical and physical properties

Group

vertical column in the periodic table

Period

horizontal row in the periodic table

Metal

element that typically is a hard, shiny solid, is malleable, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity

Malleable

able to be rolled of hammered into thin sheets

Ductile

able to be drawn into wires

Conductor

material in which electrons can move easily

Radioactive (Element)

element whose nucleus breaks down and emits particles and energy

Transition metal

metals in Groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table

Lanthanide

first row of inner transition metals listed below the periodic table that includes a series of elements with atomic numbers of 58 to 71

Actinide

second row of inner transition metals listed below the periodic table that includes a series of elements with atomic numbers of 90 to 103

Nonmetal

element that usually is a has or brittle solid at room temperature, is not malleable or ductile, is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, and typically is not shiny

Diatomic

consists of two atoms of the same element

Halogen

"salt former"; has seven electrons in the outer energy level

Noble gas

have eight electrons in the outer energy level; not very reactive

Metalloid

element that shares some properties with metals and some with nonmetals

Allotrope

different form of the same element having different molecular structures

Semiconductor

materials having conductivity properties between metals (good conductors) and nonmetals (insulators) and having controllable conductivity parameters

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