events that led to it?
-marks a new interest in Greco Roman art, literature, and classical history
1) development of Grand Tour
2) unearthing of Pompeii and Herculaneum
development of Grand Tour
-this was taken by British aristocracy. Destination was always Rome. They would visit churches, museum....(cultural education)
unearthing of Pompeii and Herculaneum
-there's a rhythmic pattern on the walls. No depth in frescos
-there's a concern about the corrupt state of Europe.
- This nostalgia is for a more moral and ethical time. Neoclassicism depicts a more moral message, unlike Rococo
characteristics of Neoclassicism
1. renewed interest in Greco-Roman art and lit
2. linear style creates clearly defined forms
3. subdued color palette
4. frieze-like composition
5. conveys a moral message in the hopes of enlightening the viewer (typically encouraging patriotism or virtue)
-his uncle was Boucher so he was trained in the Rococo style but he left this style when he went on the Prix de Rome
-looks to Poussin (line side of debate)
-means "example of virtue"
-art needed to inspire virtue in the viewer
"Oath of the Horatii"
-history painting (explains it's large size...10x14ft)
-the father is giving his blessing for his sons to fight the Corati brothers
where do we see elemplum virtutis here?
-brothers appear as a unit
-father sacrificing his sons
-women and children act how they're expected to act...sad but supportive. One of the sisters engaged to a Carti brother so she either loses a brother or fiance
how is this part of the story different from the other parts?
-it depicts a solomn, contemplative moment
-nothing to distract us from what's happening
what do the 3 Roman arches do?
-they frame the 3 groups of people (brothers, father, women and children)
Johan Joachim Winkelman
-explores stylistic shifts in art
-introduces the ides of analyzing art (father of AH)
-encourages noble simplicity and calm granduer
where do we see noble simplicity and calm granduer in "Oath of the Horatii"
-clean and nothing distracting
-stoic, calm figures
-Swiss Artist who painted in Rome
-painted portraits of people on their Grand Tour
went to British Royal Academy
"Mother of the Gracchi"
-we see exemplum virtutous (Cornelia is a widow who's been pursued by other men, but she always turns them down. She presents her 3 children as her jewels)
Shift in America's style
-after America gained independence from Britain in the Revolutionary war they wanted to establish their own style
-Georgian (Colonial) style and Federalist syle
-created by Thomas Jefferson
-means "little mountain" in Italian
-Jefferson looked to Villa Carpa
-had many windows so he could be close to nature
-some areas a museum-like
3 concerns of Palladian Architecture
1) dramatic exterior motifs
2) economical materials
3) harmony and balance (of forms and space)
"Villa Capra" (Rotunda)
-location: Vincenza, Italy
-symmetrical floor plan and many windows
"Design for Villa Pinsani"
-in the Four Books of Architecture
-portrayed as a hero but humble
-created after he was a general but before he was president
-in modern clothing after West's painting
compare and contrast "George Washington" to "Doryphorus" and "Augustus of Primaporta"
-he has contrapostto like "Doryphorus"
-has stoic expression
-allusion to his leadership with his sword at his side like"Augustus"...doesn't want to use force but has this option
-no allusion to divine lineage...no Cupid or bare feet. He was more agnostic
faces in "George Washington"
-together we a strong
-we see 13 sticks bundled together that represent to colonies
what does the plow refer to?
-once he stepped down from general he went back to his farm. This surprised people since he had so much power and could have been a lifetime leader if he wanted
what does the small tassel refers to?
-this was the badge of Cincinnatus
-members were people who fought in the Revolution
-only a slight reference since it's tucked away
Horation's "George Washington"
-people hated this
-it made Washington look like a dictator