What religion was most recognized in the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughul empires?
From where did the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughul empires originate?
from nomadic, Turkish speaking ppl of central Asia who conquered the settled agricultural lands of Anatolia, Persia and India, respectively.
Who was the founder of the Ottoman Empire?
Oh hey, it's Osman Bey!
What was the steppe tradition that caused the greatest problem for the Islamic empires?
ruler's relatives could succeed the throne. But there were a lot of family controversies and murders. Ppl lived in fear, that their relatives would kill them for the throne, so they killed anyone they suspected, sometimes almost wiping out their whole family in the process.
There was one crazy instance
Where a sultan executed 19 of his brothers (most of them babies), and 15 pregnant ladies too. After that, most sultans confined their sons in special quarters and didn't allow them to go outside, until they took the throne.
What did the Ottoman sultan outlaw because of the moralists' protests?
Coffee, Coffee! guess they couldn't take their coffee break. Not only coffee, but also tobacco.
(LOL GET IT H2$ ppl!)
What happened to the Byzantine cathedral Hagias Sophia when the Ottomans took over?
Rededication as Aya Sofiya mosque. Wow they're so original...
What were the factors for the decline of the Islamic empires?
*Islamic empires less interested in outside world
*Swiftly fell behind in technological development
*Military too expensive to maintain
What was Akbar's answer to religious diversity and tension in India?
Religious tolerance up in huuurrr
What was Zahir al-Din Muhammad's main inspiration for conquering India?
In detail : His father was the prince of Farghana and he wanted to transform his inheritance into a glorious central Asian empire, and when he was never able to extend his authority much beyond Kabul and Qandahar and was reduced at times to hardship and a handful of followers, he turned his attention to India.
Which empire was inspired by its status as an Islamic outpost on the border of the Christian world?
Le Ottoman Empire
What was the population of India by 1800?
190 million represent
(Mughal guy) Grandson of Babur. His reforms included : religious toleration for Hindus and Sikhs, a syncretic religion, called "divine faith," which stressed loyalty to the emperor, a centralized administrative structure with ministers appointed to regional provinces, & a conquest of Gujurat and Bengal.
Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent under his rule (1659-1707). extended Mughal authority into southern India. faced rebellions during his reign & religious tensions. He was a devout muslim and he was very hostile towards Hinduism. He destroyed Hindu temples and replaced them with mosques and placed a jizya on Hindus to encourage conversion.
Battle of Chaldrian
Ottoman Selim the Grim attacks Safavids. battle in which the Sunni Ottomans defeated the Shiite Safavids, using gunpowder technology.
Battle of Mohacs
a bunch of Mohawks fighting it out. LOLJK it was a battle between the Ottomans led by Suleyman the Magnificent and the King of Hungary and his troops. The outcome was: Suleyman capturing Belgrade and killed/defeated the king of Hungary.
Non-Muslim, protected people.
In detail: they got the status of a protected person after paying a jizya and being loyal. They got to retain their personal freedom, keep their property, practice their own religion, and handle their own legal affairs.
Muslim religious warriors, who aided the Ottomans in their rise to power.
Portuguese Goa became the center of a Christian mission in India. Priests here tried to get people to convert to Christianity and set up schools to teach religious instruction to Indian children.
(also called Roxelana) She was a Ukrainian prostitute. Suleyman the Magnificent fell in love with her<3 Suleyman consulted with her on state politics and deferred to her judgment. Even to the point when she told him to execute his own son for treason just so her own child would be secured as the next successor, & he did it!!
Safavid capital, the "queen of Persian cities"
Christian boys taken from conquered territories and raised as special forces. Pretty much slave troops for ze Ottomans.
In Detail: young boys from the Balkan Christian population who received special training, learned Turkish, and converted to Islam to become slaves of the Sultan, that entered the military. Came from the Turkish term yeni cheri (new troops). They gained a quick reputation for esprit de corps, loyalty to the sultan, and readiness to employ new military technology.
Payment of special tax for the nonbelievers of Islam. This special tax was later abolished by Akbar and later reinstated by Aurangzeb.
"the lawgiver" also known as Suleyman the Magnificent.
Khayr al-Din Barbarossa Pasha
-A Turkish corsair, who had challenged Spanish forces in Tunisia and Algeria, placed his pirate fleet under the Ottoman flag and became Suleyman's leading admiral.
nickname was "the Conqueror". Captured Constantinople in 1453; it became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital. Had an absolute monarchy & centralized state. Expanded to Serbia, Greece, Albania; attacked Italy.
Founded the Ottoman Empire in 1289. He also led the ghazi.
Selim the Grim
sultan that reigned from 1512 to 1520 for the Ottoman empire. Expansion continued under his rule, while he occupied Syria and Egypt. Also called Selim the Sot. He taxed a lot and spent a lot of $$$. He was assassinated. (Ottoman guy)
revitalized the Safavid regime by: promoting trade with other lands, expelling the Portuguese from Hormuz, making land grants to qizilbash officers, & increasing the use of gunpowder weapons. built new capital at Isfahan
(Safavid guy) traced his ancestry back to a Sufi religious leader. Proclaimed Twelver Shiism the official religion; imposed it on Sunni population
During his reign the Mughal Empire experienced a cultural golden age. Greatest example of Mughal architecture, Taj Mahal built during his reign, as a tomb for his wifey. also built new capital for India at Delhi. Also sat on the peacock throne with tons of jewls and expensive things.
faith combining elements of Hinduism and Islam. Like Muslims, believed in one God, who created world, who has no physical form. Like Hindus, who believed in reincarnation.
Muslim sect that claimed that Ismail was the "hidden" imam or even a reincarnation of Allah. Traced origins to twelve ancient Shiite imams. Followers known as qizilbash (or "Red Hats")
Zahir al-Din Muhammad
also known as "Babur the Tiger", he was a Chagatai Turk who founded the Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty.
Shared characteristics of Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires
• All began as military states/ "gunpowder empires".
• Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the ruler.
• All had Turkish ruling dynasties.
• All embraced Islam & the Steppe Turkish traditions.
Source of rivalry between Ottomans and Safavids
Ottoman Sunnis VS. Safavid Shiites
Ottoman advances into Central Europe
Captures Anatolia with light cavalry and volunteer infantry. Later est. Ottoman empire. Ottomans dominate All the Europeans.
Mehmed the Conqueror brought about
Transformation from warrior sultan to emperor of "two lands" (Europe, Asia) and "two seas" (Black Sea, Mediterranean)
Class and social hierarchy in these states, (what class dominates?)
Turks - Janissaries and palace bureaucrats - soldiers
Janissaries became elite
Ottoman government/administration, developments that weakened it
self administrating millets warrior aristocracy
Succession to the Ottoman throne
Mehmed the Conqueror & Suleyman the Magnificent
Succession to the Catianity throne
Emily Stewart the Conqueror & Ariana the Magnificent
The Safavids rise to power and their policies effects
Shah Ismail on the rise, he was all about the 12-er Shiism. The ppl were really loyal to him.
Ottoman and Safavid opinions of Western European developments
Foreign cultural innovations seen as a threat to political stability. So they were like "peace out, no thanks" They considered them "impious & unneccessay"
How was the Mughal empire distinct from the other two
Didn't do much foreign trade
Akbar the Great's techniques of state-building, religion building
• promoting religious tolerance
• Established centralized government
• Reformed tax system
• Abolished jizya
Women in the Mughal empire
The all agreed that woman should not have a role in public affairs, but woman did play a pretty important role in managing the Islamic empires. The Mughal emperor Jahangir was totes cool with letting his wife (Mumtaz Mahal/Nur Jahan) run the government. He loved his wife a lot, and when she died during childbirth, he had the famous Taj Mahal built in her honor. Despite her being treated well, it wasn't like that for every woman in the Mughal society. Child marriage was common, so was suicide of widows, & the status of women in the society remained low
Factors involved in the decline of the Mughal empire
• frequent rebellions
• rival claims to throne led to civil war
• Soon invaders poured into India from north
• Took over by the British imperial rule
.... I wouldn't mind being taken over by some British hotties with accents... wait. wat.