the study of thought
seeing the world as it is
The perception of a familiar object as maintaining the same shape regardless of the image produced on the retina.
place limitations on the ability of an organism to act intelligently
too many possibilities to consider
the view that knowledge is directly derived from experience
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
the factors that are varied in the experiments
the factors that are measured in an experiment
variables that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment
careful, systematic observations of one's own conscious experiences; careful analysis
the study of behavior
the methods by which we take in, analyze, store, and retrieve material
a theoretical device that can simulate the logic of any computer algorithm
studies how the activity of the brain is related to different cognitive operations
eletroencephalogram; an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
Event related potential (ERP)
an electrophysiological response to a stimulus, whether internal or external
Positron emission tomography (PET)
an imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks
a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain
Marr's three levels
Computational (specify problem, output, what does it do, computer science), Algorithmic (how does it do it, input, formula, psychology), Implementation (physical description of what is going on, neuroscience); important because need multiple viewpoints in order to fully understand the mind
- Raw sensory vision, light, darkness, lightness, size
- object recognition
- face recognition
- scene recognition
finding boundaries between objects of an image
the number of lines of a uniform thickness that can fit into a particular unit of distance
a determination of the location of something
figure ground relations
our tendency to organize stimuli into a central or foreground figure and background
the Gestalt principle of perception that states that parts of a visual stimulus that are close together will be perceived as belonging together
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendence to perceive a line as continuing its established direction
monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the smaller retinal image is farther away
Properties of the optic array that remain constant even though other aspects vary; part of Gibson's theory.
as distance increases, a texture gradually becomes less distinct and denser
Cue to depth that involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates.
The impression of depth that results from binocular disparity—the difference in the position of images of the same object on the retinas of the two eyes.
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the difference between the two images, the closer the object
feature detection theories
Process images in terms of their constituent parts and then match the features of a pattern to those features stored in memory
structural description theories
objects are stored in memory in terms of features and the relations between the features, the features and relations are extracted from the image and compared to the shape descriptions stored in memory
different three dimensional shapes that combine to form three dimensional patterns
recognition by components theory
a theory of object perception proposed by Biederman, which proposes that we recognize objects by decomposing them into volumetric features called geons.
a stimulus is matched against mental templates of previously presented patterns (e.g. letters) that are stored in memory
the selective impairment of face recognition
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
top down processing
Constructing perceptions based on our experiences and expectations
context of surrounding letters can manipulate perception of target letter
theory suggests that the mind is an enormously powerful network in which any word which at all resembles the one heard is automatically activated
dichotic listening experiment
where different messages are presented in each ear. Participants must pay attention to message in one ear, repeat it out loud, while ignoring message in other ear.
the use of attention as a type of concentration, the ability to focus on a particular stimulus over background noise
Broadbent's model in which filter restricts information from flowing
filtering of certain words early in the recognizing process;
many properties of unattended stimuli are processed
feature integration theory
the idea that attention is required to take the information from many different dimensions and bind it together in a way that marks that all of this information occurred at the same location
the ability to perform thoroughly learned tasks without much mental effort
procedure where the response associated with a stimulus is consistent across trials. This procedure leads to automaticity.
procedure in search task in which items that are targets on some trials may be distractors on other trials.
psychological refractory period
the period of time between the brain reacting to the first and second cue
internal model linked to external (real-world) objects and events so as to preserve functionally-relevant information
a representation that closely resembles the physical object
An abstract, language-like mental representation, in a form that is neither visual nor spatial; this mental representation does not physically resemble the original stimulus
the "birds-eye" view
knowledge of specific pathways from moving from one place to another
condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field
ability to rotate mental representations of three dimensional objcts
picture superiority effect
Pictures are easier to memorize than words.
dual coding hypothesis
there are two ways to represent concepts: through mental image or verbal representation