Microbiology immunology lecture 5

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Chinese, smallpox, variolation

The guy who invented vaccinations was of ________ decent, testing the effects of the _________ disease in small children. He put scabs of infected kids on healthy kids to induce immunity (a process called ________). Edward Jenner found that protection against this was also found in material from cowpox, the process of which was called vaccinia. (8)

Malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis

What are the 3 main causes of death that cannot be cured from vaccination? (8)

Active, naturally acquired immunity

The body responds to antigens that enter naturally, such as during infections (10)

Passive, naturally acquired immunity

Antibodies are transferred from mother to offspring, either across the placenta (IgG) or in breast milk (secretory IgA) (10)

Active, artificially acquired immunity

Health care workers introduce antigens in vaccines; the body responds with humoral or cell-mediated immune responses (10)

Passive, artificially acquired immunity

Health care workers introduce preformed antibodies (obtained from immune individuals) as antisera and antitoxins into a patient (10)

decreases, increases

Passive immunization ___________ over time whereas active immunization ____________ over time (11)

protective immunity

The goal of vaccination is to induce __________ _________ (memory) in the absence of diseases and their potential side effects (death and such). Several methods use this strategy that vary based on the life cycle of the pathogen (13)

Killed inactivated, attenuated live, toxic/subunit, recombinant

What are the 4 types of vaccines? (14)

Attenuated vaccines

AKA modified live vaccines. These vaccines use pathogens that are living but have reduced virulence so they do not cause disease. Viruses are kept in a tissue culture until they lose their ability to produce disease. Bacteria are put into a culture with unusual conditions or genetic manipulation (15)

Attenuated vaccines

This type of vaccine can result in mild infections but no disease. It contains replicating microbes that can stimulate a strong response. Vaccines against intracellular pathogens should trigger a cell-mediated immune response dominated by TH1 and cytotoxic T cells (16)

Killed/inactivated vaccines

This type of vaccine are whole agent vaccines produced with deactivated but who microbes. They are safer than live vaccines since they cannot replicate or mutate into a virulent form. Note: when these microbes are killed, they must not alter the antigens responsible for stimulating protective immunity. It is recognized as an exogenous antigen and stimulates a TH2 response that promotes antibody-mediated immunity (17)

Killed/inactivated vaccines

Formaldehyde is commonly used to inactivate microbes of a microbe during this process of vaccination. Microbes are inactivated by cross-linking their proteins and nucleic acids. (17)

Inactivated vaccines

A problem with this type of vaccine is that it can stimulate a severe inflammatory response due to components associated with the microbe. Another problem is that it can create weak antigens since the microbes don't reproduce and don't proviced as many antigenic molecules to stimulate the immune response (18)

Toxoid/subunit vaccines

This type of vaccine can either be a whole agent vaccine produced with deactivated but whole microbes, or subunit vaccines produced with antigenic fragments of microbes. Both types are safe than live vaccines since they cannot replicate or mutate to a virulent form. When the microbes are killed they must not alter the antigens responsible for stimulating protective immunity. Same as innactivated vaccines: Formaldehyde is commonly used to inactivate microbes by cross-linking their proteins and nucleic acids. They are also recognized as exogenous antigens and stimulate TH2 responses that promote antibody-mediated immunity (19)

Killed inactivated vaccine

Vaccine stimulates immunity but pathogen cannot multiply (14)

Attenuated live vaccine

Vaccine microbes can multiply and boost the immune stimulation (14)

Toxoid/subunit vaccine

Antigens stimulate immunity but no pathogen is present (14)

Recombinant vaccine

Antigens stimulate immunity but no pathogen is present (14)

Toxoid/subunit vaccine

A problem with this type of vaccine is that it may be antigenically weak. Also, administration in high or multiple doses, or the incorporation of an adjuvant, can make the vaccine more effective. (20)


Substances that increase the antigenicity of the vaccine. They may also stimulate severe local inflammation. Also, high/multiple vaccine doses may produce allergic reactions (20)

Recombant vaccines

This type of vaccine is what research hopes to get to, because it is more effective, cheaper, and safer. Ex.) These produce bacteria that are not harmful that express the antigen of extremely virulent pathogens (21)

vaccine safety

Problems with any vaccine include mild toxicity (especially with whole agent vaccines that contain adjuvants. May cause pain at the injection site and in rare cases can cause general malaise or fever high enough to induce seizures) and anaphylactic shock-hypersensitivity reaction (an allergic reaction that may develop to a component of the vaccine (22)

vaccine safety

Sometime vaccines an produce residual virulence (attenuated viruses occasionally cause disease in healthy children or adults (pregnant women)). (23)

Passive immunity

Administration of preformed antibodies to a patient. Used when protection against a recent infection or an ongoing disease is needed quickly. (27)

serum, antiserum

How passive immunity works: Immunologists remove the ______ from a human or animal donor that has been infected with the organism or toxin or has been immunized against it. This serum is called _______ (27)

antigens, hypersensitive, viral, hybridomas

Limitations of antisera: Contains antibodies against many different ________, not just the ones of interest. Also, repeated injection of antisera collected from a different species can cause ______________ reactions. It can also be contaminated with ________ pathogens. However, most of these limitations have been overcome through the development of monoclonal antibodies produced by __________ (28)


Purpose of this procedure is to generate large quantities of identical antibodies for research or clinical uses: Production of ______________ (29)


The study and diagnostic use of antigen-antibody interactions in serum

infectious, pathogen

How do immune testing: Use known antibodies to detect antigens associated with an ____________ agent. Use antigens to detect specific antibodies in a patient's blood to determine exposure to a specific _________ (31)

Precipitation tests, agglutination tests, neutralization tests, complement fixation tests, various tagged antibody tests

What are the 5 types of serologic tests? (32)

Precipitation test

One of the easiest serological tests. Based on the idea that antigens and antibodies mixed in the proper proportion form large macromolecular complexes called precipitates (34)

Agglutination test

A type of serological test which occurs due to the cross-linking of antibodies with particular antigens. It is the clumping of insoluble particles whereas precipitation involves the aggregation of soluble molecules. These reactions are easy to see and interpret with the unaided eye. Note: This can be used to determine blood type (36)

Labeled antibody test

A serological test that uses antibody molecules that are linked to some molecular "label" that enables them to be easily detected. Used to detect either antigens or antibodies. (ex. Flourescent antibody tests, ELISA, RIA) (39)

Fluorescent antibody test

A test that uses fluorescent dyes as labels. Fluorescein is the most important dye used in these tests because they are chemically linked to an antibody without affecting the antibody's ability to bind an antigen and it glows bright green when exposed to fluorescent light. This procedure is used in 2 types of tests: direct fluorescent antibody tests and indirect fluorescent antibody tests (40)

Indirect fluorescent antibody test

1.) antigen is attached to slide and flooded with patient's serum. 2.) fluorescent-labeled anti-Ig antiglobulin is added (41)

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

What does ELISA stand for? (42)


Uses an enzyme as the label. The reaction of the enzyme with its substrate produces a colored product indicative of a positive test. Most common form of thisis used to detect the presence of antibodies in serum (42)


Test: 1.) Antigen attached to well. 2.) A protein such as gelatin is added to block the uncoated surface. 3.) Patient serum is added; complementary antibody binds to antigen. 4.) Enzyme-linked anti-antibody is added to bound antibody. 5.) Enzyme's substrate is added, and reaction produces a visible color change (43)


What test is used for these? Diagnosis of syphilis, pneumococcal pneumonia (44)


What test is used for these? Assay production of particular classes of antibodies (44)


What test is used for these? Blood typing; pregnancy testing; diagnosis of salmonellosis, brucellosis, gonorrhea, rickettsial infection, mycoplasma infection, yeast infection, typhoid fever, meningitis caused by Haemophilus (44)

Viral neutralization

What test is used for these? Diagnosis of infections by specific strains of viruses (44)

Viral hemagglutination inhibition

What test is used for these? Diagnosis of viral infections including influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, mononucleosis (44)

Complement fixation

What test is used for these? Diagnosis of measles, influenza A, syphilis, rubella, rickettsial infections, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, infections of respiratory syncytial virus and Coxiella (44)

Direct fluorescent antibody

What test is used for these? Diagnosis of rabies, infections of group A streptococci (44)

Indirect fluorescent antibody

What test is used for these? Diagnosis of syphilis, mononucleosis (44)


What test is used for these? Pregnancy testing; presence of drugs in urine; diagnosis of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rubella; initial diagnosis of HIV infection (44)

Western blot

What test is used for these? Verification of infection with HIV, diagnosis of Lyme disease (44)

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