a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
mere exposure effect
this phenomenon causes one to prefer a stimulus as a consequence of repeated exposures to that stimulus, particularly is there is no adverse result of the exposure
forms of learning, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses
when a neutral stimulus elicits a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
a stimulus that before conditioning does not produce a particular response
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
an unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together.
in classical conditioning, an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
extinction (in classical conditioning)
The weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning the re-occurence of conditioning after it had appeared to be extinct
The phenomenon that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
Process by which an organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus and not to other similar stimuli
A pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination learning task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli.
taste aversion learning
a form of learning in which an organism learns to avoid a taste after just one pairing of that taste with illness
Skinner's term for an actively emitted or voluntary behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
A stimulus added to the environment that strengthens the response (makes it more likely to reoccur)
the removal of an unpleasant stimulus that increases the likelihood that behavior will continue; is more effective in learning than punishment
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
relationships between a response and the changes in stimulation that follow the response
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
a type of reinforcement schedule in which some, but not all, of the correct responses are reinforced
extinction (in operant conditioning)
A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement.
schedules of reinforcement
Programs specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements.
A program by which reinforcement depends on the number of correct responses.
a program by which reinforcement depends on the time interval elapsed since the last reinforcement
fixed ratio schedules
Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, unvarying number of responses
variable ratio schedules
Reinforcement programs by which the number of responses required for a reinforcement varies
fixed interval schedules
Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, fixed time period
variable interval schedules
programs by which the time period between reinforcements varies
reinforcers that meet an organism's basic survival needs, such as food and water
learned reinforcers, such as money, that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
principle that a less preferred behavior can be increased in frequency by reinforcing it with a more preferred behavior
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccuring
negative punishment (omission training)
the removal of a pleasant stimulus following an undesired response to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur
the process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
A form of cognitive learning - learning by watching others' behavior and the consequences of their behavior
long term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory