Ch. 27: The Reproductive System (Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System)

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principle structures of the female reproductive system?

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia

what is the uterus made of?

muscular myometrium

what holds uterus in position?

ovarian ligament and suspensory ligament

what connects ovary to the pelvic wall?

suspensory ligament

what is oogenesis?

ovum production (occurs monthly)

where does oogenesis take place?

ovarian follicles

what cycle is oogenesis a part of?

ovarian cycle

what are the steps of oogenesis?

1. formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles; 2. ovulation; 3. formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum

what triggers the secretion of GnRH?

decline in progesterone and estrogen

what does secretion of GnRH trigger?

a rise in FSH and LH production, and beginning of another cycle

what does each uterine tube consist of?

an expanded funnel, the infundibulum, with fimbrae (projections); an ampulla; an isthmus; and an intramural part that opens into the uterine cavity

what lines the uterine tube?

ciliated and nonciliated simple columnar epithelial cells, which aid in the transport of materials

what must happen for fertilization to occur?

the ovum must encounter spermatozoa during the first 12-24 hours of its passage from the infundibulum to the uterus

what does the uterus do?

provides mechanical protection and nutritional support to the developing embryo

where does uterus normally bend?

anteriorly near its base (anteflexion)

what stabilizes the uterus?

the broad ligament, uterosacral ligaments, round ligaments, and cardinal ligaments

gross divisions of the uterus?

body, fundus, isthmus, cervix, external os, uterine cavity, cervical canal, and internal os

what is the largest portion of the uterus?

body

divisions of uterine wall?

inner endometrium, muscular myometrium, superficial perimetrium

describe the typical uterine cycle?

1. 28 days; 2. begins with onset of mensus and destruction of the functional zone of endometrium

how long is the process of menstruation?

1-7 days

what happens after mensus?

the proliferative phase begins and the functional zone undergoes repair and thickens

when does menstrual activity begin?

menarche (the first uterine cycle)

when does menstrual activity end?

menopause

what is the vagina?

an elastic, muscular tube extending between the uterus and external genitalia

functions of vagina?

1. serves as a passageway for menstrual fluids; 2. receives the penis during sexual intercourse; 3. forms the lower portion of the birth canal

what partially blocks the vagina entrance?

the hymen (a thin epithelial fold)

structures of the vulva?

vestibule, labia minora, clitoris, prepuce, labia majora

another name for vulva?

pudendum

another name for prepuce?

hood

what do lesser and greater vestibular glands do?

keep the area in and around the vestible moistened

what creates the outer limit of the vulva?

fatty mons pubis

where are the mammary glands?

they lie in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest and are the site of milk production

what is milk production called?

lactation

what stimulates milk production?

a combination of hormones, including prolactin, growth hormone, and human placental lactogen

where do the ducts of underlying mammary glands open?

onto the body surface of the nipple

when do mammary glands develop?

during pregnancy under the influence of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and human placental lactogen (HPL)

what supplies PRL and GH?

anterior pituitary

what supplies HPL?

placenta

what does placenta function as?

a temporary endocrine organ, producing several important hormones and facilitate gas and nutrient exchange

what is placenta actively secreting by the time of corpus luteum degeneration?

estrogen and progesterone

what is another hormone the placenta produces?

relaxin

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