principle structures of the female reproductive system?
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia
what is the uterus made of?
what holds uterus in position?
ovarian ligament and suspensory ligament
what connects ovary to the pelvic wall?
what is oogenesis?
ovum production (occurs monthly)
where does oogenesis take place?
what cycle is oogenesis a part of?
what are the steps of oogenesis?
1. formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles; 2. ovulation; 3. formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum
what triggers the secretion of GnRH?
decline in progesterone and estrogen
what does secretion of GnRH trigger?
a rise in FSH and LH production, and beginning of another cycle
what does each uterine tube consist of?
an expanded funnel, the infundibulum, with fimbrae (projections); an ampulla; an isthmus; and an intramural part that opens into the uterine cavity
what lines the uterine tube?
ciliated and nonciliated simple columnar epithelial cells, which aid in the transport of materials
what must happen for fertilization to occur?
the ovum must encounter spermatozoa during the first 12-24 hours of its passage from the infundibulum to the uterus
what does the uterus do?
provides mechanical protection and nutritional support to the developing embryo
where does uterus normally bend?
anteriorly near its base (anteflexion)
what stabilizes the uterus?
the broad ligament, uterosacral ligaments, round ligaments, and cardinal ligaments
gross divisions of the uterus?
body, fundus, isthmus, cervix, external os, uterine cavity, cervical canal, and internal os
what is the largest portion of the uterus?
divisions of uterine wall?
inner endometrium, muscular myometrium, superficial perimetrium
describe the typical uterine cycle?
1. 28 days; 2. begins with onset of mensus and destruction of the functional zone of endometrium
how long is the process of menstruation?
what happens after mensus?
the proliferative phase begins and the functional zone undergoes repair and thickens
when does menstrual activity begin?
menarche (the first uterine cycle)
when does menstrual activity end?
what is the vagina?
an elastic, muscular tube extending between the uterus and external genitalia
functions of vagina?
1. serves as a passageway for menstrual fluids; 2. receives the penis during sexual intercourse; 3. forms the lower portion of the birth canal
what partially blocks the vagina entrance?
the hymen (a thin epithelial fold)
structures of the vulva?
vestibule, labia minora, clitoris, prepuce, labia majora
another name for vulva?
another name for prepuce?
what do lesser and greater vestibular glands do?
keep the area in and around the vestible moistened
what creates the outer limit of the vulva?
fatty mons pubis
where are the mammary glands?
they lie in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest and are the site of milk production
what is milk production called?
what stimulates milk production?
a combination of hormones, including prolactin, growth hormone, and human placental lactogen
where do the ducts of underlying mammary glands open?
onto the body surface of the nipple
when do mammary glands develop?
during pregnancy under the influence of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and human placental lactogen (HPL)
what supplies PRL and GH?
what supplies HPL?
what does placenta function as?
a temporary endocrine organ, producing several important hormones and facilitate gas and nutrient exchange
what is placenta actively secreting by the time of corpus luteum degeneration?
estrogen and progesterone
what is another hormone the placenta produces?