Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units

Which of the following statements best describes the fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane?

A lipid bilayer with protein molecules dispersed within it
A single layer of proteins surrounding a single layer of lipids
A single layer of proteins with lipid molecules dispersed within
A protein bilayer sandwiching a layer of lipids
A single layer of lipids surrounding a layer of proteins

A lipid bi-layer with protein molecules dispersed within it

Which item below is NOT a function performed by proteins found in the plasma membrane?

Transport of solutes
Synthesis of proteins
Receptor for chemical messenger molecules
Joining of adjacent cells
Attachment site for cytoskeleton

Synthesis of proteins

In which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes align along the cell equator?

Metaphase
Interphase
Prophase
Telophase
Anaphase

Metaphase

Lysosomes perform which of the following cellular functions?

Generate energy
Protein synthesis
Intracellular digestion
Formation of microtubules
Lipid synthesis

Intracellular digestion

Which of the following cell organelles produces secretory vesicles?

Peroxisome
Lysosome
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondrion

Golgi apparatus

Which type of membrane transport process uses ATP as a source of energy?

Facilitated diffusion
Primary active transport
Osmosis
Simple diffusion
Filtration

Primary active transport

Which of the following cell organelles function in supporting cellular structures and in generating cell movements?

Centrosome
Secretory vesicle
Lysosome
Centriole
Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton

Which of the following cell organelles is responsible for generating the energy the cell uses to perform work?

Golgi apparatus
Cytoskeleton
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Centriole
Mitochondrion

Mitochondrion

Which of the following cell organelles possesses oxidase enzymes that function in neutralizing harmful free radicals?

Transport vesicle
Centriole
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Mitochondrion

Peroxisome

Which of the following cell organelles serves as the site of protein synthesis?

Mitochondrion
Golgi apparatus
Lysosome
Centriole
Ribosome

Ribosome

Which of the following molecular components of the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane possesses a charged polar "head" and an uncharged non-polar "tail"?

Phospholipid
Integral protein
Cholesterol
Glycolipid
Glycoprotein

Phospholipid

Which nucleic-acid molecules are involved in transcription but not translation in the synthesis of a particular polypeptide?

rRNA
DNA
tRNA
mRNA

DNA

The mRNA start codon, AUG, matches up with a tRNA anticodon, _______.

ATG
CAU
UAC
GAC
GUA

UAC

Which of the following cell structures are involved in propelling substances across cell surfaces?

Vaults
Flagella
Intermediate filaments
Cilia
Microfilaments

Cilia

Which of the following cell structures functions as the control center of the cell?

Lysosome
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Mitochondrion
Centrosome

Nucleus

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the stages of mitosis?

Metaphase, anaphase, telophase, prophase
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase
Anaphase, prophase, telophase, metaphase
Telophase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Which of the following transport mechanisms involves the movement of water?

Osmosis
Facilitated transport
Diffusion
Secondary active transport
Filtration

Osmosis

Some cells are said to be sugar coated due to the presence of:

glycocalyx.
phospholipids.
glycolipids.
sphingolipids.

glycocalyx.

Proteins in the cell membrane that bind hormones and relay messages into the interior of the cell:

perform a function known as signal transduction.
are known as transmembrane proteins.
provide cell identification.
are known as carrier proteins.

perform a function known as signal transduction.

Definite changes in the _____________ of the cell membrane can be seen in a cell that is becoming cancerous.

lipid rafts
phospholipids
cholesterol
glycocalyx

glycocalyx

All of the following cells are considered "foot loose," except:

epithelial cells.
phagocytic cells.
sperm cells.
blood cells.

epithelial cells.

Which of the following are considered anchoring junctions?

Desmosomes
Connexons
Gap junctions
Tight junctions

Desmosomes

Simple diffusion is best described as substances:

moving against a concentration gradient actively.
moving against a concentration gradient passively.
moving down a concentration gradient passively.
moving down a concentration gradient actively.

moving down a concentration gradient passively.

Crenation takes place when a cell is placed in a(n):

isotonic solution.
hypertonic solution.
hypotonic solution.
normal saline.

hypertonic solution.

Vesicular transport is involved in all of the following transport processes, except:

exocytosis.
solute pumps.
endocytosis.
substance trafficking.

solute pumps.

The resting membrane potential is mainly determined by the concentration gradient of ____ inside the cell.

Na+
K+
protein anions
Cl-

K+

All of the following are functions of membrane receptors, except:

cell adhesion.
chemical signaling.
G-protein linking.
contact signaling.

cell adhesion.

"Cristae" are found in which of the following cell organelles?

Ribosomes
The nucleus
The mitochondria
Cilia

The mitochondria

The underlying cause of Tay Sachs disease is:

nerve cells storing too much lipid.
the lack of lysosomes in the nervous system.
the lack of the enzymes needed to breakdown a glycolipid, which is abundant in nerve cell membranes.
ingestion of too much lipid.

the lack of the enzymes needed to breakdown a glycolipid, which is abundant in nerve cell membranes.

Which of the following types of RNA contains regions that act as a switch to turn protein synthesis on and off for the protein it codes for?

Antisense RNA
Riboswitches
tRNA
MicroRNA

Riboswitches

The smallest unit of life is the________.

nucleus
organelle
cell
atom

cell

The outer boundary of a human cell is the:

cell wall.
nuclear membrane.
plasma membrane.
cytoskeleton.

plasma membrane.

Which of the following would not be found in the plasma membrane of a human cell?

Nucleic acids
Phospholipids
Glycolipids
Proteins
Cholesterol

Nucleic acids

Water can readily diffuse through the plasma membrane.
True
False

true

Osmosis is:

a form of active transport across a cell membrane.
the diffusion of a solute across a cell membrane.
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.
a form of facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane.

End of Question 6

the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.

Which of the following pairs is a correct match?

Endocytosis: passive transport
Exocytosis: active transport
Facilitated diffusion: active transport
Osmosis: active transport

Exocytosis: active transport

A cell will swell, and likely burst, if it is placed in a __________ solution.

hypertonic
hypotonic
isotonic
hypo-osmotic

hypotonic

Pinocytosis is a type of___________.

facilitated diffusion
exocytosis
endocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis

endocytosis

Cells of the body mainly use _______ for the selective endocytosis of most macromolecules.

receptor-mediated endocytosis
fluid-phase endocytosis
diffusion
pinocytosis

receptor-mediated endocytosis

At rest, most body cells are not polarized.
True
False

false

The primary site of cellular ATP production is the:

ribososme.
mitochondrion.
lysosome.
nucleus.

mitochondrion.

Ribosomes are found:

only in the cytosol.
only in the nucleus.
in the nucleus and on the endoplasmic reticulum.
in the cytosol and on the endoplasmic reticulum.
only on the endoplasmic reticulum.

in the cytosol and on the endoplasmic reticulum.

Using the pull-down menus, match each item in the left column to the corresponding item in the right column.

A Contain digestive enzymes
B Protein folding, packaging, and modification
C RNA synthesis
D Protein synthesis
E Support cellular structures
F Neutralize dangerous free radicals
15.1 Ribosome
15.2 Nucleolus
15.3 Endoplasmic reticulum
15.4 Peroxisomes
15.5 Cytoskeleton
15.6 Lysosomes

D. Protein synthesis
C. RNA synthesis
B. Protein folding, packaging, and modification
F. Neutralize dangerous free radicals
E. Support cellular structures
A. Contain digestive enzymes

DNA is replicated during the ________ phase of the cell cycle.

M
G1
G2
S

S

A gene is best defined as:

a segment of a protein that directs the production of RNA.
a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a polypeptide chain.
a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a lipid.
a segment of a chromosome that allows for DNA replication.

End of Question 17

a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a polypeptide chain.

During transcription:

DNA is used as a template to make mRNA.
mRNA is read to produce DNA.
t-RNA is used to build a protein.
mRNA is read to produce a protein.

DNA is used as a template to make mRNA.

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