Defined to be the left and right ossa coxae.
Bones of the Pelvis
Left and right ossa coxae, sacrum, and the coccyx.
Bone that is commonly referred to as the hip bone.
Bones that form the os coxae
The ilium, ischium, and pubis bones.
Joint where the sacrum and the os coxae articulate.
Deep curved depression where the femur articulates with the os coxae. Made up of all three bones of the os coxae.
Bone that forms the superior region of the os coxae and the acetabular surface.
Large, roughened area of the ilium where the ilium articulated with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint.
The superior-most ridge of the ilium.
Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
Projection of the ilium where the iliac crest arises anteriorly.
Posterior Superior Iliac Spine
Location of the skin dimple on the back is caused by this landmark of the ilium. The most posterior portion of the iliac crest. Also a location for bone marrow biopsies.
Inferior lateral portion of the os coxae. Fuses with the Ilium near the superior and posterior margins of the acetabulum.
The posterolateral border of the ishium where a roughened projection is, also commonly called the "sit bone".
Anterior bone of the os coxae that fuses with the ilium and ischium at the acetabulum.
Superior Ramus of the Pubis
Superior portion of the pubis.
Inferior Ramus of the Pubis
Inferior part of the pubis.
Space in the os coxae that is encircled by both pubic and ischial rami. Allows passage for nerves and muscles.
The anterior joint between the two ossa coxae. Consists of fibrocartilage and separates the pubic bones.
The upper portion of the pelvic basin and is enclosed by the wing-like sides of the flared iliac bones. Houses the inferior abdominal organs.
Lower portion of the pelvic basin and it encloses the pelvic cavity and forms a deep narrower region that contains the pelvic organs.
Inferior exit from the true pelvic. Bounded by the inferior border of the pubic symphysis, the ischial tuberosities, and the coccyx. Can be widened by giving birth in the squatting position.
Measurement of the pelvic outlet to see if vaginal birth or a cesarian section is better.
Horomone released by the corpus luteum of the ovary. It loosens the symphysis pubis and the scroiliac joint to increase the diameter of the true pelvis and pelvic outlet to facilitate parturition.
Pubic Arch or Subpubic Angle
Part of the pelvis. In females it is wider and more convex, usually greater than 100 degrees. In males it never exceeds 90 degrees.
Aging of the Os Coxae
20=roughened or billowed articular surfaces. 30-40=pubic articular surfaces flatten and loose their billowing. Older= the pubic articular surfaces begin to develop concavities and arthritic changes.
Number of Bones in each Lower Limb
The longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body.
Head of the Femur
Proximal portion of the femur that articulates with the acetabulum.
Fovea of the Femur
Depression in the head of the femur where a tiny ligament connects it to the acetabulum.
Neck of the Femur
Elongated and constricted portion of the proximal end of the femur that connects the head to the shaft at an angle.
Fracture of the Neck of the Femur
Incorrectly referred to as hip fractures. This is a common fracture location of aged persons.
Shaft of the Femur
Long cylindrical portion of the femur.
Article:Carbonated Apatite or Dahllite
Article: Mineral from which a paste is formed that can be injected into fractured bones and promote rapid healing of fractures. The body also treats it as if it were bone, making blood vessels to go through it and shaping it to be more like bone.
Article: Factors that Increased Risk of Bone Fracture
Article: Women whose mother had suffered hip fractures, tall women who had broken any bone after the age of 50, women with overactive thyroids, the drug Benzodiazepine(used to control anxiety), Anticonvulsants(used to avoid seizures), caffiene, too little exercise, and loosing weight after the age of 25.
Article: Factors that Decreased Risk of Bone Fracture
Article: Gaining weight after the age of 25, and estrogen replacement therapy.
Greater Trochanter of the Femur
Landmark of the femur that projects laterally from the junction of the neck and shaft. Can be palpated on the side of the hip.
Lesser Trochanter of the Femur
Landmark of the femur that is located on the femur's posteromedial surface. Synonymous with the Lesser Tubercle of the Humerus.
Linea Aspera of the Femur
A roughened midline ridge on the posterior portion of the shaft of the femur.
Article: Referred Pain
Article: Pain in one part of the body that is caused by a completely different part of the body. Ex: Hip pain caused by stain on the lower back muscles.
Article: Trochanteric Bursitis
Article: Inflammation of the bursae that overlie the Greater Trochanter of the femur that can be cured by an injection of cortisone and anesthetics.
Article: Leg Length Discrepancy(LLD)
Article: Difference in the length of the legs that is common in most individuals. Can be fixed with heel lifts or sole inserts. Can be diagnosed by looking at the soles of a persons shoe and foot.
Article: Structural LLD Discrepancies
Article: Leg length discrepancy which can be congenital or the result of a fracture or hip replacement surgery. It involves an actual difference in the length of the bones.
Article: Functional LLD Discrepancies
Article: Leg length discrepancy caused by muscle weakness or stiffness in the pelvis, ankle or foot. The legs are the same size but function as if one is longer.
Medial and Lateral Condyles of the Femur
Two large rounded landmarks on the distal end of the femur that articulate with the tibia.
Medial and Lateral Epicondyles of the Femur
Two landmarks superior to the lateral and medial condyles that serve for ligament and tendon attachment. Can be palpated on the sides of the knee.
Patellar Surface of the Femur
Landmark of the distal femur located between the medial and lateral condyles on the anterior surface where the patella articulates with the femur.
Intercondylar Fossa of the Femur
The deep depression that separates the medial and lateral condyles of the femur on the posterior surface.
Known as the kneecap, it is a large roughly triangular sesamoid bone in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle.
Muscle whose inferior tendon houses the patella bone.
Base of the Patella
Superior portion of the patella.
Apex of the Patella
Inferior portion of the patella that is more pointed than the superior portion.
Articular Facets of the Patella
Posterior landmarks of the patella that articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur. The Lateral of the two being the larger which helps to identify which patella bone you have.
Tibia and Fibula
Two bones of the lower leg(crural region)
Dense connective tissue between the tibia and fibula that help stabilize the bones.
Medially placed bone of the crural region that bears the weight of the body.
Medial and Lateral Condyles of the Tibia
Flat surfaces on the superior portion of the tibia that articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur.
Intercondylar Eminence of the Tibia
Landmark of the Tibia that separates the medial and lateral condyles. This prominent ridge helps prevent knee displacement.
Fibular Articular Surface of the Tibia
Landmark on the proximal posterolageral side of the tibia where the fibula articulates with the tibia to form the superior tibiofibular joint.
Superior Tibiofibular Joint
Joint of the superior articulation between the tibia and fibula.
Tibial Tuberosity of the Tibia
Landmark on the proximal anterior portion of the tibial shaft which can be palpated just inferior to the patella. It is the attachment site for the patellar ligament. Also interosseous(I.O.) infusion can be performed here to treat traumatized children.
Ligament that attaches to the Tibial tuberosity.
Fibular Notch of the Tibia
Landmark on the distal posterolateral side of the tibia where the fibula articulates with the tibia to form the inferior tibiofibular joint.
Inferior Tibiofibular Joint
Joint of the inferior articulation between the tibia and fibula.
The non-weightbearing bone of the crural region of the lower leg. It is the long, thin, laterally placed bone of the lower leg. it does not articulate with the femur.
Lateral Malleolus of the Fibula
Lateral prominence that can be palpated on the ankle.
Medial Malleolus of the Tibia
Medial prominence that can be palpated on the ankle.
7 bones that form the ankle. They help transfer force and provide flexibility of movement.
Tarsal bone that articulates with both the tibia and fibula. It is the most superior of the tarsal bones.
Largest of the tarsal bones that forms the pominence of the heel. It also serves at attachment for the the Achilles tendon.
Tendon that attaches the calf muscles to the calcaneus bone.
Metatarsal Bones of the Pes(foot)
Five long bones similar in arrangement and name to the metacarpal bones of the hand. They are numbered 1-5 with the big toe or "hallux" being number one.
Phalanges of the Pes
14 bones in the foot that are similar to the bones in the fingers.
Big toe that only has a proximal and distal phalanx. Also known as the first digit of the pes.
Medial Longitudinal Arch of the Pes
Arch on the medial inferior portion of the foot.
Lateral Longitudinal Arch of the Pes
Arch on the lateral inferior portion of the foot.
Transverse Arch of the Pes
Arch that pass transversly underneath the metatarsals.
Factors that help the foot maintain its arch
Shape of the bones in a wedge shape, and strong ligaments, muscles and tendons.
Clinical: Localized swelling at either the dorsal or medial region of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Looks like a bump on the foot near the great toe. Causes the hallux to point in a different dirrection than normal, bone spurs, bursitis, and calluses(hyperkeratosis).
Clinical: Cause of Bunion
Clinical: Caused by wearing shoes that fit too tightly.
Clinical: Pes Cavus
Clinical: Refered to as Clawfoot, it is characterized by excessively high longitudinal arches.
Clinical: Pes Cavus
Clinical: Often seen in patients with neurologic disorders (such as poliomyelitis) or muscular disorders (such as atrophy of leg muscles).
Clinical: Talipes Equinovarus
Clinical: Commonly referred to as congenital clubfoot. The foot of newborns appears to curve medially and the ankles are plantar flexed (like they're on tip toe).
Clinical: Common cause of Talipes Euinovarus
Clinical: Not enough room in the womb causes this foot disorder.
Clinical: Pes Planus
Clinical: Commonly referred to as flat feet, it is a foot deformity in which the medial longitudinal arch is flattened (or "fallen) so that the entire sole touches the ground.
Clinical: Causes of Pes Planus
Clinical: Excessive weight, postural abnormalities, or weakened supporting tissue in the foot. Standing most of the day can cause slightly fallen arches as well, but they return to normal.
Clinical: Metatarsal Stress Fracture
Clinical: This injury usually results when repetitive pressure or stress on the foot causes a small crack to develop in the outer surface of the bone of the metatarsal. The second and third metatarsals are most commonly involved.
Clinical: Treatment for Metatarsal Stress Fractures
Clinical: Wearing either stiff or well-cushioned shoes are required for healing, also extended rest.
Article: Ilizarov Procedure
Article: Procedure where the patients's leg is deliberately broken and affixed to a rack, with the leg stretched slightly every day so that the bones fuse together to cover the separated space, lengthening the leg. Being used in china.
Closed Fracture of the Pelvis
Common in falls and crashes, indirect forces(impact of knees into dashboard), minor falls of elderly persons. These fractures are associated with severe internal bleeding that may be fatal. They usually break in two locations.
"Hip Fractures" or Fractures of the Neck of the Femur
Fracture that usually involves the neck of the femur and not the os coxae. Common in elderly persons with osteoporosis, and young adults who experience traumatic injury.
Femoral Shaft Fracture
Often an open fracture because of the severe trauma it takes to produce this fracture. Significant blood loss and spasm of leg muscles along with internal puncture trauma from the broken ends of the bone are associated with this fracture. Hare Traction Splint is a quick treatment.
Hare Traction Splint
Quick treatment to stabilize the femur after a femoral shaft fracture.
Fracture of the Patella
Fracture caused by falling on the knees. It usually doesn't fragment because it is embedded in the patellar tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
Fracture of the Tibia and Fibula
Fracture can occure anywhere along the shafts of these two bones of the crural region that almost always break together. the medial of these bones is often an open fracture due to its proximity to the surface of the skin.
Fracture of the medial and lateral malleolus of the tibia and fibula. Used to be common among skiers before the invention of better boots.
The most often fractured tarsal bone due to when a person falls or jumps from a height and lands on one or both heels.
Clinical: The necrosis (death) of the soft tissues of a body part due to a diminished or obstructed arterial blood supply to that region. Common in the limbs, fingers, or toes. Also caused by bacterial infection or direct mechanical injury. A major complication for diabetics.
Clinical: Intestinal Gangrene
Clinical: Usually occurs following an obstruction of the blood supply to the intestines, which if not treated will lead to death.
Clinical: Dry Gangrene
Clinical: Form of gangrene in which the involved body part is desiccated, sharply demarcated, and shriveled, usually due to constricted blood vessels as a result of exposure to extreme cold. Can be caused by frostbite or cardiovascular disease.
Clinical: Wet Gangrene
Clinical: Caused by bacterial infection of tissues that have lost their blood and oxygen supply. The cells in the dying tissue rupture and release fluid. Common bacteria associated with this is Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella.
Clinical: Gas Gangrene
Often mistaken for wet gangrene. However, the bacteria typically associated with gas gangrene are Clostridium, which doesn't need oxygen. It can be diagnosed due to the cracklin sound in the tissue due to bubbles from the gas released by bacteria.