Multicellularity

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chapter 10

extracellular matrix

network of material secreted from the cells forming a complex meshwork outside of cells

adhesive

protein of ECM
fibronectin and laminin, have multiple binding site so they are able to bind to extracellular proteins as well as to cell surface

structural

protein of ECM
collagen provides tensile strength
elastin provides elasticity

collagen

at least 27 different type of collagens in humans
25% of total protein is collage
75% of protein in mammalian skin
assemble into fibrils

polysaccarides in animal ECM

after protein, 2nd major component
highly negative change
GAGs= most abundant in vertebrates

two GAG examples

chondroitin sulfate-cartilage
hyaluronic acid- skin, eye joint fluid

cell junctions

adhere cells to each other and to the EMC

anchoring junctions

(animal cells)
attach cells to each other and the ECM
rely on cell adhesion molecules (CAM)

adherins junction

use cadherins organized in bands to actin

desmosomes

cadherin, all riveting to intermeidate filaments (IF)

hemidesmosomes

integrin to IF

focal adhesion

bound to actin

Cadherins

CAMs that create cell to cell junctions
require Ca2+

homolyric bonding

by expressing only certain types of cadherins, each cell will only bind to other expressing the same type

integrins

group of cell surface receptor proteins
2nd type of CAMs
do not require Ca2+

tight junctions in animals

occluding junctions
forms tight seal between adjacent cells
made by occludin and claudin

gap junctions in animals

small gap between plasma membranes of cells at junction
6 connexin proteins align with 6 from adjacent cell to form connexon

connexon

A channel formed in a gap junction by the attachment of six connexin proteins on one cell to six connexin proteins on another

middle lamella in plants

First layer to form when cells dividing and Cement cell walls of adjacent cells together

plasmodesmata in plants

Plasmodesmata link nearly all plant cells together, this allows the free exchange of necessary materials like water, RNA molecules, small solutes, and some small proteins

6 basic cell processes

1. Cell division
2. Cell growth
3. Differentiation
4. Migration
5. Apoptosis
6. Cell connections

4 general types of animal tissue

1. Epithelial tissue
2. Connective tissue
3. Nervous tissue
4. Muscle tissue

Epithelial tissue

Cells joined together forming continuous sheets to cover or line body surfaces

Connective tissue

Support body or connect tissues
connective in animal
ground in plant

Nervous tissue

Receives, generates and conducts electrical signals

Muscle tissue

Generates force that facilitates movement

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