The determination of the sequence in which events occurred, relative to each other.
Principle of Original Horizontality
Layers of sediment that are generally deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position
Principle of Superposition
The principle that in a series of stratified sedimentary rocks the lowest layer is the oldest
Principle of Cross-cutting
Any rock cutting through another rocks is always younger
Principle of Intrusion
Particles from one layer deposited into another, those particles are younger then original rock
Sedimentary rock that has magma in between it
Missing layers, mosting due to erosion
smallest particle into which an element can be divided while still retaining chemical characteristics
Negatively charged subatomic particle that circles around the nucleus
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass Number
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
The attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
A body of intrusive igneous rock
A tabular igneous body formed when magma is injected along sedimentary bedding surfaces
Hot molten rock material in the earth's mantle. Rich in silica.
Large mass of intrusive igneous rock believed to have solidified deep within the earth
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
Igneous rock produced by eruption and solidified on or near the earth's surface. Basalt common in rocks.
The process that converts sediments into solid rock by compaction or cementation
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
Metamorphism caused by high pressures and temperatures that extend over large regions, as happens where plates collide.
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
A naturally formed aggregate, or mixture, of minerals; have varied chemical compositions.
The breaking down of rocks due to ice, water and wind.
The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
Laying down of sediments
Pressure of overlying sediments
The process by which dissolved minerals crystalize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
Process of selection and separation of sediment grains according to their grain size.
Well rounded particles that have traveled a long distance.
The solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle, which are solid, brittle and elastic.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
Divergent Plate Boundaries
tectonic plates spreading apart, new crust being formed (ex. mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys).
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Two plates colliding and creating either a mountain range (2 continental) or a subduction zone (2 oceanic), or trench (oceanic and continental)
The outer layer of the Earth
The portion of the earth's crust that primarily contains granite, is less dense than oceanic crust, and is 20-50 km thick
Thin, more dense than continental crust, subducting crust
The layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Solid and brittle plus the crust which is the lithosphere. Floats on top of inner mantle.
Solf and plastic known as the asthenosphere. Up to 200 miles into the mantle.
The liquid layer of earth made of nickel and iron. Causes an electric field along with magnetic field.
solid, dense center of the Earth
The volcanic rock ejected during an eruption including ash, bombs, and blocks
Solidified magma that built up in volcano neck. Outter pyroclastic material eroded.
An electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
Material from which a soil is formed, determines composition and properties of the soil
The non-radioactive element from the parent material decay.
The actual time (usually measured in years) as determined by radioactive decay of elements
Van der Waals
A slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
A pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles separated by a small distance
A mineral that has a shiny surface, does not let light pass through, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
Basic building block of silicate minerals, made up of four oxygen atoms and 1 silicon aton
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
A type of ingneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
Fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
Igneous rock texture where crystals are equal in size and identifiable to the naked eye--coarse-grained texture
Rapid cooling at earth's surface results in tiny mineral crystals that can only be seen under a microscope.
Rock texture, characterized by large, well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same mineral
Made of explosively ejected particles that are compressed and cemented, or welded.
The transfer of heat by movement of a fluid
(geology) an increase in land resulting from alluvial deposits or water-borne sediment
Location on the earth's surface where no seismic waves or only P waves can be detected. No earthquakes felt in these zones.
Ring of Fire
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
Magma with a low silica and gas content (non explosive eruptions)
Magma with a high silica content and large volume of gas (explosive eruptions)
A hot, fast moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils
A slow-moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks; cooler that pahoehoe
Basalt in the form of six-sided, parallel, vertical columns
Steep-sided, dome or spine shaped masses of volcanic rock formed from viscous lava that solidifies in or immediately above a volcanic vent
Small mountains with steep sides that blow cinders and rock particles into the air when they erupt.
Found in areas where water has been heated to temperatures higher than commonly found on the surface
Blocks of lava that solidify in a stream like shape
The solid matter left after combustion of materials
Flowing body of hot ash, dust, gases and solid particles.
200-450 degrees C, moving up to 300 k/hr
Is the idea that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle with no charge
The period of time in which half of a radioactive substance decays
Mineral that contains sillicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements
The study of changes in Earth's magnetic field, as shown by patterns of magnetism in rocks that have formed over time
Sedimentary rock consisting of rock fragments compacted and cemented together
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
The eruption of lava from a crack in the lithosphere rather than from a central vent
A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava
Resistance to flow
An avalanche of volcanic water, ash and mud down the slopes of a volcano
A large depression typically caused by collapse or ejection of the summit area of a volcano
A tall cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials.