Posterior and Superior boundary of the temporal fossa?
Anterior border of the temporal fossa.
Frontal and Zygomatic Bones
Lateral Border of the Temporal Fossa
Inferior border of the Temoral Fossa
Floor of the Zygomatic fossa is formed by what four bones?
Front, Parietal, Temporal, Greater wing of Sphenoid. This is called the Pterion!!!
Contents of the temporal Fossa are?
Temporal Fascia, Upper part of Temporalis Muscle, Deep temporal nerves, Deep temporal vessels.
Temporal fascia attaches superiorly to?
Superior temporal lines
Temporal fascia attaches inferiorly to?
Splits into two layers and attaches to the medial and lateral surfaces of the zygomatic arch.
Infratemporal fossa is an irregularly shaped space where?
Deep and Inferior to the zygomatic arch.
Lateral Border of the infratemporal fossa?
Ramus of the mandible.
Medial border of the infratemporal fossa
lateral pterygoid plate
Anterior border of the infratemporal fossa?
Posterior Aspect of the Maxilla.
Posterior Boder of the infratemporal fossa
Tympanic plate, mastoid and styloid process of the temporal bone.
Superior Border of the Infratemporal fossa?
Infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid.
Inferior border of the infratemporal fossa?
Medial pterygoid muscle attachment at the angle of the mandible.
What are the FOUR muscle of mastications?
Temporalis, Masseter, Lateral Pterygoid, Medial Pterygoid
The temporalis Muscle OINA?
O: Floor of Temporal Foss, Deep Surface of Temporal Fascia
I: Tip & Medial Surface of Coronoid Process of mandible, Ant. border of ramus of mandible.
N: Deep Temporal Nerves (Ant. Division of the Mandibular Nerve)
A: Elevates mandible & closes jaw.
O: Inferior Border & medial surface of zygomatic arch. Medial surface of maxillary process of zygomatic bone.
I: Angle. Lateral Surface of ramus of mandible.
N: Masseteric Nerve (Ant. Division of mandibular Nerve)
A: Elevates mandible, limited contribution to protrusion.
Lateral Pterygoid OINA
Triangular 2 headed muscle.
O: Upper head from the infratemporal surface and crest of greater wing of sphenoid. Lower head from the lateral Surface of lateral pterygoid plate.
I: Upper head attaches primarily to joint capsule and Articular disc of TM joint. Inferior head attaches primarily to pterygoid fovea on the neck of the mandible.
N: Pterygoid branch of Ant. Division of mandibular.
A: Acts bilaterally to protract mandible and depress chin. Unilateral can swing jaw to one side.
Medial Pterygoid OINA
Is a quadrangular two-headed muscle.
O: Superficial Head from the tuberosity of the maxilla. Deep head from the medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of palatine bone.
I: Insertion into the medial surface of ramus of mandible, inferior to mandibular foramen.
N: Trunk of Mandibular Nerve.
A:With the masseter, elevates mandible.
Which nerve supplies the Four Muscle of Mastication?
Where does the Maxillary artery arise from and how is it divided?
It arises from the Ex carotid and arises posterior to the neck of mandible, inside parotid gland. It is divided into 3 parts based on the relation to the LATERAL pterygoid muscle. (Divided by it)
Where does Part 1 of the Maxillary artery run?
The MANDIBULAR Part passes anteriorly, deep to the neck of mandibular condyle.
Where does Part 2 of the maxillary artery run?
The PTERYGOID part passes superficial or deep to lateral Pterygoid muscle.
Where does Part 3 of the maxillary artery run?
The PTERYGOPALATINE part disappears through the pterygomaxillary fissure to enter the infratemporal fossa.
What are the branches of part 1 of the maxillary artery? (5)
Deep Auricular Artery
Anterior Tympanic Artery
Middle Meningeal Artery
Accessory Meningeal Artery
Inferior Alveolar Artery
Where does the middle meningeal artery arise from and where does it run?
Part 1 (Mandibular) of the Maxillary artery and is encircled by the two roots of auriculotemporal nerve and enters cranial cavity via foramen spinosum to supply meninges.
Where does the Accessory meningeal artery arise from and where does it run?
Part 1 (Mandibular) branch of Maxillary artery and enters cranial cavity via foramen ovale.
Where does the Inferior alveolar artery arise from and where does it run?
Part 1 (Mandibular) of the Maxillary Artery and descends to enter mandibular canal of mandible via mandibular foramen.
What are the Branches of the second part of the Maxillary artery? (4)
Part 2 (Pterygoid) splits into Masseteric artery, Deep Temporal Arteries, Pterygoid branches, Buccal Artery
What are the Branches of Part 3 of the Maxillary Artery? (6)
The Branches of the Pterygopalatine Artery are:
Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery, Infraorbital Artery, Artery of pterygoid canal, Pharyngeal Branch, Descending Palatine Artery, Sphenopalatine Artery.
What does the Posterior Superior ALveolar ARtery Supply?
Branch of Part 3 (Pterygopalatine) of Maxillary Artery. Supplies the maxillary molar and premolar teeth as well as the mucous membrane of maxillary air sinus.
What does the Infraorbital Artery Supply?
Branch of Part 3 (Pterygopalatine) of Maxillary artery. Supplies the mucous membrane of maxillary sinus and skin of the infraorbital region of face.
Where does the Sphenopaltine artery run?
Branch of Part 3 (Pterygopalatine) of Maxillary artery. Is the terminal part of the Maxillary artery and traverses the sphenopalatine foramen.
Pterygoid Venous plexus anastamoses anteriorly with?
the facial vein via deep facial vein.
Pterygoid venous plexus anastomoses superiorly with?
the cavernous sinus via emissary veins.
What does the Mandibular Nerve arise form and where does it run?
Arises from trigeminal ganglion. Descends through the foramen ovale into the infrtemporal fossa.
Branches from the trunk of the Mandibular Nerve? (2)
Nervous Spinosus (Meningeal Branch of mandibular nerve), Nerve to medial pterygoid.
Branches from the Anterior division of the Mandibular Nerve? (4)
Buccal Nerve, Masseteric Nerve, Deep Temporal nerves, Pterygoid Branch (supplies on lateral pterygoid).
Branches from the Posterior branch of Mandibular Nerve (3)
Auriculotemporal Nerve, Inferior Alveolar Nerve, Lingual Nerve.
The Auriculotemporal nerve runs and supplies?
Branch of Mandibular Nerve (Posterior). Encircles the middle meningeal artery and supplies articular (sensory) fibers to the TM joint, and postsynaptic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers from the otic ganglion to the parotid gland.
The Inferior Alveolar Nerve runs and supplies?
Branch of the Mandibular Nerve (Posterior). Enters the mandibular foramen. Gives a branch (mental nerve) that passes through mental foramen and supplies mucous membrane of the lower lip (NOVACAINE!)
Lingual Nerve runs and supplies?
Branch of the Mandibular Nerve (Posterior). Lies Anterior to the inferior alveolar Nerve and supplies sensory to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Sensory to the floor of the mouth (general sensation to the ant. 2/3 of tongue)
Chorda Tympani runs and supplies?
(Branch of CNVII - Facial) Carries taste fibers to the anterior 2/3 of tongue. Carries secretomotor fibers for the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
Otic Ganglion is located where and run where?
(Presynaptic parasympathetic fibers derived mainly from the glossopharyngeal nerve - CNIX) Located in teh infratemporal fossa, just inferior to the foramen ovale. Synapses in the Otic Ganglion. The postsynaptic fibers are secretory for the parotid gland and pass from the otic ganglion through the auriculotemporal nerve.
What type of joint is the temporomandibular joint?
A modified hinge type of synovial joint.
The Articular Disc of the temporomandibular joint creates how many compartments?
The Superior Compartment of the temporomandibular Joint allows for what kind of movement?
Gliding movements of protrusion and retrusion (translation)
The Inferior compartment of the temporomandibular joint allows for what kind of movement?
Hinge movements of depression and elevation.
The lateral ligament of the temoromandibular join is formed by what?
Thick part of articular capsule.
The lateral ligament of the temporomandibular joint prevents what?
Strengthens the TM joint laterally and acts to prevent posterior dislocation of the joint.
The stylomandibular ligament is what?
the thickening of the fibrous capsule of the parotid gland. Runs from the Styloid process to angle.
The sphenomandibular ligament runs where and supports how?
It runs from the spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingula of the mandible and its primary passive support of the mandible and serves as a swinging hinge. Acts as the fulcrum.
What muscles of the TM joint allow for elevation? (3)
Temporalis, Masseter, medial pterygoid.
Which muscles allow for depression of the TM joint? (3)
Lateral pterygoid, Suprahyoid muscles, infrahyoid muscles.
Injury to the articular branches of the auriculotemporal nerve supplying the TM joint is associated with what?
Dislocation of TM Joint. Traumatic dislocation and rupture of the Articular capsule and lateral ligament.
The oral region includes? (6)
Oral Cavity, Teeth, Gingivae, tongue, palate, palatine tonsils.
The Oral Vestibule is found where?
It's a slitlike space between the teeth and buccal gingival, lips, and cheeks.
The oral cavity proper is formed by what?
The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the palate
The nerve supply of the upper lip is from what nerve?
The infraorbital nerve (Branch of maxillary nerve)
The nerve supply of the lower lip is what nerve?
Mental nerve (Branch of inferior alveolar nerve.)
The principal muscle of the cheek is the?
The encapsulated collection of fat superficial to the buccinator is the?
The vascular of the maxillary and the mandibular teeth are what arteries?
Superior and inferior alveolar arteries (Branches of the maxillary artery)
The hard palate consists of which two areas of bone?
Palatine processes of the maxilla, and the horizontal plates of palatine bone.
What are the three foramina in the hard palate?
Incisive fossa of the maxilla, Greater palatine foramen and the lesser palatine foramen.
Where is the incisive fossa of the maxilla found? What nerves transmit through?
A slight depression posterior to the central incisor teeth and transmits the nasopalatine nerves.
Where is the greater palatine foramen located and what transmits through it?
Pierces the lateral border of the bony palate, transmits the greater palatine nerve and vessels.
Where is the lesser palatine foramen located and what transmits through it?
Lies posterior to the greater palatine foramen and transmits the lesser palatine nerves and vessels.
What is the soft palate?
The movable posterior third of the palate.
What is the structure that is located at the posterior inferior end of the soft palate?
The conical process called the Uvula.
What is the Palatine aponeurosis and where is it located.
A formation of the expanded tendon of the Tensor Veli Palatini. It strengthens the soft palate.
Which two arches are the continuation of the soft palate to the tongue and pharynx?
The Palatoglossal and Palatopharyngeal Arches.
What is Fauces?
The passage from the mouth to the pharynx. (Throat)
Which tonsils are commonly referred to simply as "tonsils"
The Palatine Tonsils.
What are the masses of lymphoid tissue on each side of the oropharynxe?
The palatine Tonsils.
What are the mucous secreting glands deep to the mucosa in the oropharynx?
What are the muscles of the soft palate? (5)
Musculus Uvulae, Palatopharyngeus, Palatoglossus, Levator veli Palatini, Tensor veli palatini.
Tensor veli palatini OINA?
Muscle of Soft Palate
O: Scaphoid fossa of the medial pterygoid plate, spine of the sphenoid bone, cartilage of the auditory tube.
I: Palatine Aponeurosis
N: Nerve to medial pterygoid (Branch of mandibular nerve via otic ganglion [Only soft palate muscle with different innervation])
A: Tenses the soft palate, and opens the mouth of the auditory tube during swallowing and yawning.
Levator Veli Palatini OINA?
Muscle of Soft Palate
O: Cartilage of the Auditory Tube, Petrous part of the temporal bone.
I: Palatine aponeurosis
N: Pharyngeal branch of Vagus Nerve (via pharyngeal plexus)
Muscle of Soft Palate
O: Palatine Aponeurosis
I: Side of the tongue
N: Pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (Via pharyngeal plexus)
A: Elevates the posterior part of tongue, and draws the soft palate onto tongue.
Muscle of soft Palate.
O: Hard Palate, Palatine aponeurosis.
I: Lateral Wall of the pharynx
N: Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (via Pharyngeal plexus)
A: Tenses the soft palate and Pulls the wall of the pharynx superiorly, anteriorly, and medially during swallowing. (Squeezes it)
Musculus Uvulae OINA?
Muscle of the Soft Palate.
O: Posterior Nasal Spine, palatine aponeurosis.
I:Mucosa of the uvula
N: Pharyngeal branch of Vagus Nerve (via pharyngeal plexus)
A: Shorten the Uvula and pulls it superiorly.
What are the 3 arteries of the Palate?
Greater palatine artery (Branch of descending palatine artery), Lesser palatine artery (also same branch), Ascending palatine artery (Branch of facial artery)
What venous plexus serve the veins of the palate?
Tributaries of the Pterygoid Venous Plexus
What are the Nerves of the Palate. (There are 4 but 3 are underlined)
Branches of Pterygopalatine ganglion, Nasopalatine Nerve, Lesser Palatine Nerve.
What are the sensory nerves of the Palate?
Branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion.
Which nerve supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior part of the hard palate?
Which Nerve supplies the soft palate?
The lesser palatine nerve.
Which muscle of the soft palate is NOT supplies by the pharyngeal plexus of nerves.
Tensor veli palatini muscle.
Where is the root of the tongue attached to?
Posterior portion of the hyoid bone and mandible.
What is the dorsum of the tongue?
The top of the tongue.
What is the V shaped groove on the dorsum of the tongue?
Ther terminal sulcus (aka sulcus terminalis)
What foramen lies at the apex of the sulcus terminalis?
A small pit called the foramen cecum.
In embryonic development what was the function of the foramen cecum?
Was part of the embryonic thyroglossal duct from which the thyroid gland is developed.
What are the 4 Papillae located on the tongue?
Circumvallate, Foliate, Filiform, Fungiform.
Which papillae lie anterior to the terminal sulcus and how are they arranged?
Circumvallate Papillae arranged in a V shaped, and studded with taste buds.
Which tongue papillae are small lateral folds of the lingual mucosa?
Foliate Papillae, poorly developed in humans.
Which tongue papillae are arranged in a V shape and are in rows parallel to the terminal sulcus (on lateral aspect of tongue)
Filiform papillae. Not parallel at the apex.
Which papillae are mushroom shaped pink or red spots?
Fungiform Papillae. More numerous at the apex and margins of tongue.
Which papillae contain taste receptors in the taste buds.
Circumvallate, foliate, and most fungiform papillae.
Which part of the tongue has no papillae but does have lymphoid tissues?
Posterior part of the tongue.
What is the collection of lymphoid nodules on the tongue called?
What is the lingual frenulum?
Large midline fold of mucosa on the inferior surface of the tongue.
What is present on each side of the BASE of the lingual frenulum, that includes the opening of the submandibular duct from the submandibular gland?
A dan shaped muscle that forms the bulk of the tongue?
O: Superior Mental Spine, genial tubercle of the mandible.
I: The entire dorsum of the tongue, body of hyoid.
N: hypoglossal nerve (XII)
A: Bilateral activity depresses the tongue.
Is a thin, quadrilateral muscle.
O: Body of G Horn of the Hyoid
I: Infero-lateral part of tongue
N: Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
A: Depresses and shortens tongue.
Small Short triangular Muscle
O: styloid p. of temporal bone, stylohyoid ligament
I: Side of tongue, along with hyoglossus
A: Elevates side of tongue
Narrow Crescent shaped muscle.
O: Palatine aponeurosis of the soft palate
I: Posterolateral side of the tongue.
N: Pharyngeal branch off pharyngeal plexus from the Vagus nerve. Wtf.
A: Elevates post. part of tongue. Depresses soft palate
Motor Supply of the Tongue?
XII. All muscles except palatoglossus.
Sensory Supply to general sensation of the tongue
Lingual Nerve - Anterior 2/3 of tongue
Supplies special sensation taste fibers to anterior 2/3 of tongue?
Chorda Tympani Nerve - Branch of the facial nerve.
Supplies both general and special snesations to Posterior 1/3 of tongue?
Supplies mostly general and some special sensation to the root of the tongue in front of the epiglottis.
Internal Laryngeal Nerve.
Apex of tongue senses what?
Lateral Margin of the tongue senses?
Posterior part of tongue senses what?
sourness and bitterness
Arterial Supply of the tongue is derived from?
Lingual artery which is a branch of the External Carotid Artery
What are the 3 different glands that produce saliva? (Minus accessory glands)
Parotid, Submandibular, and sublingual glands
Where is the submandibular glands found?
ALong the body of the mandible partly deep to mylohyoid m.
What is the arterial supply of the submandibular gland
Submental artery (branch of facial)
Where is the sublingual glands?
lies in the floor of the mouth between mandible and genoglossus m. Smallest and deep gland
What is teh arterial supply to the subligual glands?
Sublingual arter (branch of lingual artery) and the submental (branch of facial)
Presynaptic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers come from the ? (3)
facial, tympani and lingual nerves and synapse in the submandibular ganglion.
What would cause the tongue to fall posteriorly?
Paralysis of the genioglossus muscle.
If tongue falls posteriorly what could be the consequence?
Obstruction of airway and suffocation
Lingual Carcinoma will end up metastasizing along what structure?
Through the submental and submandibular regions along the INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN in the neck.
A small pyramidal space inferior to the apex of the orbit?
Anterior boundary of the Pterygopalatine fossa is?
Anteriorly is by the posterior aspect of the maxilla.
Posterior boundary of the Pterygopalatine fossa is?
Posteriorly by the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.
Medial boundary of the Pterygopalatine fossa is?
Medially by the vertical plate of the palatine bone.
Roof boundary of the Pterygopalatine fossa is?
Roof is by the greater wing of the sphenoid bone
Floor boundary of the Pterygopalatine fossa is?
Floor by pyramidal process of palatine bone.
Lateral communication of the pterygopalatine fossa is?
Lateral is with the infratemporal fossa through the pterygomaxillary fissure.
Medial communication of the pterygopalatine fossa is?
Medially with the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen
Anterosuperior communication of the pterygopalatine fossa is?
Anterosuperiorly with the orbit through the inferior oribital fissure.
Posterosuperior communication of the pterygopalatine fossa is?
Posterosuperiorly with the middle cranial fossa through the foramen rotundum and pterygoid canal.
The Maxillary artery is one of the terminal branches of which artery?
Maxillary aretery is one of the terminal branches of the External Carotid Artery
This artery traverses teh infratemporal fossa, over the lateral pterygoid muscle and enters the pterygopalatine fossa.
The third part of this artery passes through the pterygomaxillary fissure and enters the pterygopalatine fossa
What is the terminal part of the mixillary artery?
Where does the maxillary nerve enter through?
Maxillary nerve travels through the foramen rotundum and enters teh pterygopalatine fossa
What is the communicating branch of the maxillary nerve which conveys parasympathetic secretomotor fibers t the lacrimal gland?
Deep petrosal nerve is comes from what plexus?
Sympathetic Nerve from the internal carotid plexus.