Ch. 4 Bio Study Guide

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Organic Chemistry is a science based on the study of

Carbon Compounds

Early 19th-century scientists believed that living organisms differed from nonliving things as a result of processing a "life force" that could create organic molecules from inorganic matter. The term given to this belief is

Vitalism

The concept of vitalism is based on a belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws. According to this belief, organic compounds can arise only within living organisms. Which of the following did the most to refute the concept of vitalism?

Miller's experiments with ancient atmospheres.

The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that

living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena.

Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?

Carbonhas a valence of 4.

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its calence shell?

4

What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form?

Covalent

Which of the following is (are) true about the carbon atoms present in all organic molecules?

A, B, and C are correct

What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?

The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.

How many structural isomers are possible for a substance having the molecular formula C(4)H(10).

2

The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as

Structural isomers

Observe the structures of glucose and frucose. These two molecules differ in the

Arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.

Observe the structures of glucose and fructose. These two molecules are

Structural isomers.

Which of the following is true of geometric isomers?

They have variations in arrangement around a double bond.

The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as (C=C)

Geometric Isomers

Research suggests that side effects from Ritalin, the drug used to treat ADD, may be caused by contamination of enantiomers, or molecules that

Are mirror images of one another.

A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound?

It should dissolve in water.

Which is the best description of a carbonyl group.

A carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond.

What is the name of the functional group shown in the following figure?

Carboxyl

Which of the following contains nitrogen in additon to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?

an amino acid such as glycine.

Which of the following is a false statement concerning amino groups?

They are component of urea.

Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?

Carboxyl and amino

Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?

Carboxyl

A carbon skeleton is covalently bonded to borh an amino group and a carboxyl group. When placed in water it

Would function as neither an acid nor a base.

A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. Which of the following functional groups should be added to the molecule in order to do so?

Amino

Which functional groups can act as acids?

Carboxyl and phosphate

Which of the following statements is (are) true about the phosphate ion?

Only A and B are true
It is negatively charged.
It has acid properties.

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