Educational Psychology Unit 1 Exam

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143 terms · TCU, Dr. Esping Spring 2012

educational psychologists

These people study what happens when SOMEONE teaches SOMETHING to SOMEONE ELSE in SOME SETTING

ethnography

studying the naturally occurring events in the life of a group and trying to understand the meaning of these events to the people involved

correlation

a number that indicates both the strength and the direction of a relationship between to events or measurements

descriptive studies

studies that often include survey results, interview responses, samples of actual classroom dialogue, or audio and video records of class activities, ethnography is one type

case study

investigates in depth how a teacher plans courses, how a student tries to learn specific material, etc.

experimentation

allows educational psychologists to go beyond predictions and actually study cause and effect; introduce changes and note the results

microgenetic research

intensively studies cognitive processes in the midst of change (as the change is actually happening); goal is to explain the underlying mechanisms of change

principle

an established relationship between two or more factors; findings repeatedly point to the same conclusions; in classroom management, these help with specific problems

theory

an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and make predictions about the results of future experiments; in classroom management, these give you a new way of thinking about problems, give you tools for creating solutions to many different problems

Piaget

described the stages of cognitive development; the thinking of the child changes in ways that involve more than the addition of knowledge and skills

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal

4 Stages of Cognitive Development

Freud

described the stages of psychosexual development; suggested that if the conflicts at one stage are not resolved, the person can become fixated at this stage

Erikson

offered a basic framework for understanding the needs of young people in relation to society; psychosoical theory is development through a series of stages that are interdependent, developmental crises at each stage that the individual has to solve

behaviorism

theory that looks at the consequences of a behavior as increasing or decreasing the likelihood that it will happen again

information processing theory

theory that focuses on attention, types of memory, how knowledge is represented and stored, forgetting, and the cognitive systems that make this possible

social cognitive theory

theory that combines behavioral concerns with consequences and cognitive interests in thinking; Bandura

Vygotsky

believed that human activities take place in cultural settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings; specific mental structures and processes can be traced to our interactions with others

Bronfenbrenner

developed a framework to map the many interlacing social contexts that affect development (biological model)

biological model

people bring their biological selves to the developmental process; the social contexts in which we develop are ecosystems because they are in constant interaction and influence each other

sociocultural theory

theory influenced by Vygotsky; human activities take place in cultural settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings; our specific mental structures can be traced to our interactions with others; these interactions create our cognitive structures and processes

3 themes of Vygotsky's writing

sources of individual thinking; role of cultural tools in learning and development (especially language); zone of proximal development

co-constructed

Higher mental processes first are ______ during shared activities between the child and another person. Then the processes are internalized by the child and become part of the child's cognitive development.

disequilibrium

Piaget's idea that cognitive conflict motivates change, and therefore social interactions with peers are the best way to learn

cultural tools

material tools and psychological tools that play important roles in cognitive development

psychological tools

According to Vygotsky, all higher-order mental processes are mediated by these (examples are language, signs, and symbols); these help students advance their own development

collective monologue

children talking to themselves as they play; according to Piaget, a form of self-directed egocentric speech & sign of immaturity

private speech

Vygotsky's name for when young children talk to themselves; he said these mutterings plan an important role in cognitive development by moving children in stages toward self-regulation

Zone of Proximal Development

Vygotsky's name for the area between the child's current developmental level and the level of development that the child could achieve with adult guidance or help from more capable peers; area where instruction can succeed; "magic middle"

scaffolding

an adult's use of verbal prompts and structuring to help a child solve a problem or accomplish a task; a form of support; can be gradually reduced as the child takes over the guidance

development

Piaget's word for the active construction of knowledge

learning

Piaget's word for passive formation of associations

differentiated instruction

using materials and lessons that can be understood at several levels and can be "just right" for a range of cognitive abilities; multi-level instruction

assisted learning

also called guided participation; Vygotsky suggests that teachers need to do more than just arrange the environment so students can discover on their own; they need to learn what is needed, help student, allow students to do more and more on their own, adapt materials to students' needs, etc.

fund of knowledge

knowledge that a student comes to school with from their family and home life that teachers can build on

learning

occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual's knowledge or behavior (can be deliberate or unintentional)

contiguity

whenever two or more sensation occur together often enough, they will become associated. Later, when only one of these sensations occurs, the other will be remembered too

stimulus

sensation that occurs

response

when a stimulus occurs, this associated ____ will also occur if it has been learned

classical conditioning

focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses like fear, muscle tension, saliva, etc.; Pavlov

operant conditioning

people actively "operate" on their environment; we learn to behave in certain ways when we do this; Skinner

reinforcer

any consequence that strengthens the behavior it follows; these behaviors increase in frequency or duration

positive reinforcement

when the consequence that strengthens a behavior is the appearance (addition) of a new stimulus (ex.: prize; swat)

negative reinforcement

when the consequence that strengthens a behavior is the disappearance (subtraction) of a stimulus (ex.: don't have to do chores)

punishment

involves decreasing or suppressing behavior

presentation punishment

occurs when the appearance of a stimulus following the behavior suppresses or decreases the behavior (ex.: afterschool detention)

removal punishment

involves removing a stimulus (ex.: no recess)

continuous reinforcement schedule

reinforced for every correct response

intermittent reinforcement schedule

reinforced sometimes but not every time; in order to best maintain the behavior; can be fixed or variable

interval schedule

type of intermittent reinforcement schedule; based on the amount of time that passes between reinforcers

ratio schedule

type of intermittent reinforcement schedule; based on the number of responses learners give between reinforcers

extinction

removal of reinforcement altogether leads to this; this occurs when the conditioned stimulus appears but the unconditioned stimulus does not follow

effective instruction delivery

EID; instructions that are concise, clear, and specific, and that communicate the expected result are more effective

cueing

the act of providing an antecedent stimulus just before a specific behavior is supposed to take place

prompt

an additional cue that follows the first cue

applied behavior analysis

the application of behavioral learning principles to change behavior; also known as behavior modification

Premach principle

principle that says that a high-frequency behavior (preferred activity) can be an effective reinforcer for a low-frequency behavior (less-preferred activity)

task analysis

the teacher takes the final complex behavior the student is expected to master and breaks it down into a number of small steps

shaping

strategy that involves reinforcing progress instead of waiting for perfection; also called successive approximations

positive practice

students replace one behavior with another; can be used to deal with academic errors or classroom management

response cost

for certain infractions of rules, people lose some reinforcer (money, time privileges, etc.)

social isolation

time out from reinforcement; student is placed alone in an isolated, unattractive room

group consequences

using base reinforcement on the behavior of the whole class

contingency contract

program where teacher draws up an individual contract with each student, describing what the student must do to earn a particular privilege or reward

functional behavior assessment

the process of understanding the "why" of a problem behavior

social learning theory

theory of learning from observing others; neobehavioral approach; behavioral view of learning with emphasis on social influences

social cognitive theory

theory that focuses on cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations; distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning

enactive learning

learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions; consequences are seen as providing information

vicarious learning

learning by observing others; also known as observational learning; people can learn by watching

domain-specific knowledge

knowledge that pertains to a particular task or subject

general knowledge

knowledge that applies to many different situations

information processing

the mind takes in information, performs operations on it to change its form and content, stores the information, retrieves it when needed, and generates response to it

sensory memory

the initial processing that transforms incoming stimuli into information so we can make sense of them; may only last fractions of a second; also called sensory register or sensory information store

perception

the process of detecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it; meaning is based on both physical representations from the world and our existing knowledge

bottom-up processing

feature analysis; features are extracted or analyzed to give a rough sketch; the stimulus must be analyzed into features or components and assembled into a meaningful pattern

Gestalt

pattern; configuration; refers to people's tendency to organize sensory information into patterns or relationships

prototype

the features and patterns detected are combined in light of the context of the situation; we use these to help us perceive patterns quickly

attention

determines what we will perceive and process; guided by what we already know and need to know; affected by what else is happening at the time, the complexity of the task, and your ability to control or focus it

automaticity

many process that initially require attention become almost performed without thinking with practice; depends on how much practice we have had in the situation and whether we are really focusing our attention and directing our own cognitive processing

working memory

the interface where new information is temporarily held and combined with knowledge from long-term memory to solve problems, comprehend, etc.; what you are thinking about at the moment; capacity is limited

short-term memory

includes temporary storage and active processing; where active mental effort is applied to new and old information

central executive

supervises attention; makes plans; retrieves information; and integrates the information

phonological loop

a system for rehearsing words and sounds for short-term memory; can hold as much in this as we can rehearse; handles verbal tasks

visuospatial sketchpad

the place where you manipulate images; handles visual tasks; small storage capacity

cognitive load

refers to the amount of mental resources, mostly working memory, required to perform a particular task; depends on what the person already knows about the task and what supports are available

intrinsic cognitive load

the amount of cognitive processing required to figure out material; unavoidable; depends on how many elements you have to take into account and how complicated the interactions among the elements are

extraneous cognitive load

the cognitive capacity you use to deal with problems not related to the learning task; gets in the way of the learning task

germane cognitive load

directly relates to high-quality learning; comes from deep processing of relevant information- organizing and integrating the material with what you already know and forming new understandings

maintenance rehearsal

involves repeating information in your mind; useful for retaining something you plan to use and then forget

elaborative rehearsal

involves connecting the information you are trying to remember with something you already know (knowledge from long-term memory); retains information from working memory and helps move it to long-term memory

long-term memory

holds the information that is well-learned; takes time and effort to store information here

declarative knowledge

knowledge that can be declared through words and symbol systems; tremendous range of this knowledge; "knowing that" something is the case

procedural knowledge

knowledge that must be demonstrated; "knowing how" to do something; knowledge in action

self-regulatory knowledge

knowing how to manage your learning knowing how and when to use your declarative and procedural knowledge; also called conditional knowledge; can be specific or general

explicit memory

knowledge from long-term memory that can be recalled and consciously considered; we are aware of these memories

implicit memory

knowledge that we are not conscious of recalling, but that influences our behavior or thought without our awareness

semantic memory

memory for meaning; declarative knowledge; not tied to particular experiences; stored as propositions, images, concepts, and schemas

proposition

smallest unit of knowledge that can be judged true or false

propositional networks

propositions that share information are linked in these; it is the meaning, not the exact words or word order, that is stored; it is stored as a set of relationships among propositions

images

representations based on the structure or appearance of the information; we remember or recreate the physical attributes and spatial structure of information

concept

category used to group similar events, ideas, objects, or people; abstraction; do not exist in the real word; help us organize vast amounts of information into manageable units

prototype

the best representation of its category; an image that captures the essence of each concept

exemplars

our actual memories of specific things that we use to compare with an item in question to see if it belongs in the same category

simplicity principle

when humans are confronted with examples, they induce the simplest category or rule that would cover all examples; seek a simple hypothesis for collecting all the examples under one concept

schemas

abstract knowledge structures that organize vast amounts of information; mental framework that guides our perception and helps us make sense of our experience based on what we already know and what we expect to happen

story grammar

a type of schema that helps students understand and remember stories; a typical general structure that could fit many specific stories

episodic memory

memory about events we have experienced; we can usually explain when the event happened; also keeps track of the order of things

flashbulb memories

memories of dramatic or emotional moments in your life; vivid and complete

scripts

action sequences or plans for actions stored in memory

productions

specify what to do under certain conditions; if A occurs, then do B

priming

activating information that already is in long-term memory through some out-of-awareness process

elaboration

way to remember; adding meaning to new information by connecting with already existing knowledge

organization

way to remember; easier to learn and remember than bits and pieces of information; places concepts in a structure

context

way to remember; a kind of priming that activates the information; information will be easier to remember if the current ____ is similar to the original one

levels of processing theory

what determines how long information is remembered is how extensively the information is analyzed and connected with other information; the more completely information is processed, the better our chances of remembering it

spreading activation

how information is retrieved from the network of the long-term memory; when a particular proposition or image is active other closely associated knowledge can be primed or triggered as well, and activation continues through the network

reconstruction

a cognitive tool or problem-solving process that makes use of logic, cues, and other knowledge to construct an answer by filling in any missing parts

interference

newer memories obscure older memories

automated basic skills

skills that are applied without conscious thought

metacognition

thinking about thinking

executive control processes

guide the flow of information through the information processing system

production deficiency

students learn strategies, but do not apply them when they could or should

constructivism

focus on how people make meaning; learners are active in constructing their own knowledge, social interactions are important in this knowledge construction process

radical constructivism

perspective holds that there is no reality or truth in the world, only the individual's perceptions and beliefs; we each construct meaning from our own experiences, but we have no way of understanding or "knowing" the reality of others

wave constructivism

also knows as "solo" constructivism; emphasizes individual meaning-making; Piaget

second wave constructivism

constructivism that puts learning in social and cultural context

appropriation

being able to reason, act, and participate using cultural tools

complex learning environments

students should be given environments and problems with many parts; they should have multiple, interacting elements and multiple possible solutions

social negotiation

develop students' abilities to engage in _____; establish and defend their own positions while respecting the positions of others and working together to negotiate or co-construct meaning

spiral curriculum

a structure for teaching that introduces the fundamental structure of all subjects (big ideas) early in the school years, then revisits the subjects in more and more complex forms over time

inquiry learning

teacher present a problem or question, students formulate hypothesis, collect data, draw conclusions, and reflect

problem-based learning

students are confronted with a problem that launches their inquiry as they collaborate to find solutions; goal is to help students develop flexible knowledge that can be applied to many situations, enhance intrinsic motivation and skills in problem solving, collaboration, etc.

reciprocal teaching

to help students understand and think deeply about what they read; students in small groups learn to summarize, ask questions, predict, and clarify; the teacher teaches these strategies and helps the students use them

collaboration

a philosophy about how to relate, learn and work with others; a way of dealing with people that respect differences, shares authority, and builds on the knowledge that is distributed among other people

cooperation

a way of working with other to attain a shared goal

reciprocal questioning

the teacher provides question stems and the students are taught how to develop specific questions on the lesson material using the question stems, students then take turns asking and answering

Jigsaw classroom

class is divided into groups and must become an expert on their piece, everyone is tested on all of it so everyone's contribution is important; second version involves meeting with other "experts" to refine knowledge before sharing with group

Fostering Communities of Learners

a system of interacting activities that results in a self-conciously active and reflective learning environment; entire instructional program grounded in constructivist learning theories

neutral stimulus

brings forward no response; not conditioned to react to this

unconditioned stimulus

no prior training or conditioning is needed to establish a natural response to this

unconditioned response

elicited automatically, with no conditioning required, following a stimulus

conditioned stimulus

something that has been taught to elicit a response

unconditioned response

stimulus has been taught to elicit this

respondents

automatic responses to stimuli

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