Name 3 advantages of inhalation anesthetics?
greater margin of safety, can easily and rapidly control depth of anesthesia, eliminated through lungs, can deliver oxygen to patient, allows for mechanical ventilation, reduces risk of aspiration
What are 3 ideal characteristics of injectable anesthetics?
no tissue toxicity, no cardiovascular/respiratory effects, rapid onset/recovery, provide analgesia, provide muscle relaxation, rapid metabolism even with deficient liver and kidney function
What are some disadvantages of inhalation anesthetics?
induction can be slow, potential for pollution of the room air, depress cardiovascular/respiratory/thermoregulatory systems, machine needed
Disadvantages of injectable anesthetics?
depth of anesthesia not easily altered, elimination through liver metabolism/kidney excretion/redistribution, animal breathes only 20%, depress cardiovascular/respiratory/thermoregulatory systems
What vein is most commonly used in pigs to draw blood or inject IV drugs?
Name 3 advantages of barbiturates?
low cost, redistributed, can be used for short procedures, significant adverse effects on cardiovascular/respiratory function
What is apnea?
complete lack of breath
What are 2 instances when you should absolutely never use barbiturates?
c-sections because they readily cross the placenta, animals with hypoproteinemia because they bind to proteins to be eliminated
What type of hounds should never be given barbiturates?
Name 2 barbiturates.
What drug class is Ketamine from?
How do cyclohexamines work?
disrupting nerve conduction pathways in the brain
What is catalepsy?
muscle rigidity and no response to external stimuli
What is hyperaesthesia?
exaggerated reflex responses
Name some effects/uses of cyclohexamines.
muscle tone increased, marked sensitivity to sensory stimuli, poor viceral analgesia, good analgesia for skin, eliminated by liver and skin
What are cyclohexamines commonly combined with?
tranquilizers like diazempam or xylazine
When should you not use cyclohexamines?
head trauma or eye diseases because they increase cerebrospinal fluid and intraocular pressure
What animal are "ketamine and tranquilizer" mixes most commonly used in?
What 2 routes are ketamine most commonly given?
IV and IM
What might happen during recovery with high doses of ketamine/medetomidine?
What is the biggest problem with using acepromazine/ketamine?
What is the best tranquilizer/cyclohexamine combo for dogs and cats?
What is neuroleptanalgesia?
combining opioids and tranquilizers as induction or anesthetic agents
What type of dogs is neuroleptanalgesia usually used in?
old dogs cardiovascular compromised
Why should you administer neuroleptanalgesia slowly?
can get unwanted CNS stimulation with rapid injection
What route should neuroleptanalgesia be administered?
What are the 2 major disadvantages of propofol?
expensive, no shelf life
What is the more economical option for propofol when used with dogs?
50:50 concentration with thiopental
What does lipophilic mean?
Tending to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats.
What drugs are lipophilic?
propofol and barbiturates
Why is propofol safe for animals with eye problems or trauma?
decreases intraocular pressure and cerebrospinal fluid pressure
Why shouldn't you inject slowly with propofol?
b/c it will cause muscle tremors and transient excitement
What is the problem with etomidates given IV?
IV injection can be painful and cause perivascular abcess
Why shouldn't you rapidly administer etomidate in cats?
can cause nonclinical hemolysis
Why should you not use etomidate in animals with Addison's Disease?
depresses adrenal function
What kind of storage is needed for etomidate after opening?
none...no storage qualities at all after being opened
What type of animals is guaifenesin?
How should guaifenesin be administered?