1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.
a movement opposing any measures that advance women's equality, status, rights, or opportunities
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded "sociology." Influenced Realpolitik
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized, realist author; wrote "The Germinal"; was known for his seamy animalistic view of working class life; sympathized with socialism
First Vatican Council
the council called by Pope Pius IX in 1870 similar to the Council of Trent in that it reaffirmed Catholic dogma and papal infallibility. After the council, unltramontanism prevailed, which is essentially the belief in Papal infallibility and jurisdiction over Catholics across the world.
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
George Bernard Shaw
(1856-1950) Born in Dublin, worked in London. Freethinker, feminist, socialist, vegetarian writer of more than 50 plays that focus on the conflict between thought and belief. "Pygmalion," "Arms and the Man," "Man and Superman," "Major Barbara," "Mrs. Warren's Profession."
John Maynard Keynes
Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany, He argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
(cultural struggles) An extreme church state conflict waged by Bismark in Germany during the 1870's in response to a perceived threat to German political unity from the Roman Catholic church.
believes in seperation of labor; rules of procedures withing decisions, promotions based on qualification, seperation of ownership and management
the form of empiricism that bases all knowledge on perceptual experience (not on intuition or revelation)
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Survival of the Fittest
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection
Austrian journalist and Zionist, formed World Zionist Organization, promoted Jewish state, jewish journalist who thought anti-sentimism was a persistent feature of human society and assimilation couldn't solve it.
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.