Bio 171 Lecture 19

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organisms

evolutionary processes affect all _____ on earth

continue

evolutionary processes _____ to impact populations and species

practical

understanding evolution has _____ applications such as fighting diseases and saving endangered species

phenotypes

natural selection act's on individual's _____ and the population evolves (allele frequencies change)

Origin of Species

publication about evolution by Darwin

pinnacle

Humans are NOT the ______ of evolution, simply part of the eukarya tree

speciation

small evolutionary changes accumulate over long time periods and generate large evolutionary changes like ____

progressive

evolution is NOT ______

current

natural selection reduces the representation of less advantagous traits in the _____ environment (but environments change!)

reproductive success

as environments change, the traits that lead to increased ______ can also change

natural selection

________ can move populations away from HWE

hardy-weinburg equilibrium

HWE

natural and sexual

___ and ____ selection are the only processes that produce adaptations

adaptations

heritable traits that increase survival/reproductive success

selection

_____ is the only evolutionary process that can consistantly produce adaptations

HWE

natural selection can move populations away from _______

alleles

_____ increase or decrease in frequency based on an organism's fitness

fitness

alleles increase or decrease in frequency based on an organism's _____

fitness

the number of viable offspring the organism is able to produce

relative fitnes

the fitness of an individual relative to other members of the population

generation time

timescale for evolution by natural selection depends on _____ of organism

fast

generation time is generally ___ for bacteria and archaea

slower

generation time is generally ____ for eukaryotes as compared to bacteria

tuberculosis

bacteria/disease that kills more adult humans than any other virus or bacterium (TB)

antibiotic-resistant

TB is on the rise as ______ strains evolve and spread

sanitation, nutrition, antibiotics

_____, _____, ______ greatly reduced cases of TB over 1950-1990 but now it is coming back

directional selection

selection that changes the average value of a trait

allele

in directional selection, 1 ____ is favored

fixed

an allele with a frequency of 100% is said to be ____

genetic diversity

with directional selection, over time _____ is reduced

phenotypic divergence

directional artificial selection drives _____ in dogs and domesticated crops

directional sexual

increase in tail length of male widowbirds due to _______ selection

environments

human activities are changing _____

unintended directional

human activities (changing environments) are causing ___________ natural selection

antibiotic resistance

directional natural selection unintentionally caused by humans: hundreds of disease causing bacteria have evolved resistance to antibiotics

pesticide resistance

directional natural selection unintentionally caused by humans: over 600 species of insects and mites have evolved resistance to pesticides

herbicide resistance

directional natural selection unintentionally caused by humans: hundreds of weedy plants have evolved resistance to herbicides

artifical selection

directional natural selection unintentionally caused by humans: this is NOT ____ (because is unintended)

balancing selection

a pattern of natural selection in which heterozygous individuals have higher fitness then homozygous individuals

heterozygous

balancing selection favors ______ individuals

malaria

example of balancing selection: carriers of sickle-cell anemia are more resistant to than HH genotypes

stabilizing selection

reduces the amount of variation in a trait

intermediate phenotypes

in stabilizing selection, individuals with _____ are favored

genetic variation

stabilizing selection tends to reduce _____ in a trait

human birth weight

example of stabilizing selection

disruptive selection

increases the amount of variation in a trait

extreme phenotypes

disruptive selection occurs when _____ are favored

mean

disruptive selection does not change the ____ value of a trait

stabilizing selection

disruptive selection has an effect that is opposite of ______

regressive evolution

loss of complex structures

eyes

example of regressive evolution: cave species commonly lose their ____

reduced

if having ____ morphological complexity leads to higher fitness, then the frequency of those alleles will increase in a population (regressive evolution)

parasitic worms

example of regressive evolution: many ____ have very simple morphologies

morphology

the physical form of an organism

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