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Vocabulary for Unit 10

gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

homologous chromosome

the chromosomes that make up a pair, one chromose from each parent

gamete

sex cells that have half the number of chromosomes as the parent's cell

haploid

a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes

fertilization

the process by which one haploid gamete combines with another haploid gamete

diploid

an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

meiosis

cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

crossing over

the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis

genetics

the science of heredity

allele

Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.

dominant

a trait that shows up whenever present

recessive

a specific rait that is hidden unless two alleles are present

homozygous

an organism with two of the same alleles

Heterozygous

an organism with two different alleles

genotype

organisms allele pairs

phenotype

observable characteristic or outward expression of an allele pair; the trait you an see

law of segregation

two aleles for each trait separate during during meiosis and two alleles for that trait unit during fertilization

hybrids

organisms that have a heterozygous allele combination

law of independent assortment

a random distribution of alleles accurs during gamete formation

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