Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898). Prusso-German statesman, who was the architect of German unification and the first chancellor of the united nation. Through Bismarck's efforts, Germany was transformed from a loose collection of small states into the German Empire, the strongest industrialized nation in continental Europe. A unified Germany permanently changed the European balance of power. Though Bismarck dominated German and European politics for nearly 30 years, his career was a series of paradoxes. An ultraconservative, he initiated social and welfare reform. A master politician, he despised parliaments and parties. A Prussian patriot, he created a German empire.
This term refers to a new approach to the issue of Italian unification. Those citizens advocating this political policy embraced the emotional components of Romanticism, and conscripted them into a republican governmental framework. Romantic republicans organized secret societies, and rallied behind Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi. These leaders often participated in guerilla warfare, served in the Roman Republic, and were exiled to the US. In most instances, those advocating romantic republicanism were highly radical and influential nationalists.
The receipt of this telegram from William I (in regards to French negotiations) by Bismarck was the culminating incident in the crisis that had developed between France and Prussia over the candidacy of Prince Leopold of the Hohenzollern family (of which King William of Prussia was the head) for the throne in Spain. The prospect of a German prince becoming King of Spain was intolerable to the French cabinet and its anti-Prussian foreign minister, the Duc de Gramont. Thus the crisis began when on July 6, 1870 Gramont, in a speech in the French Chamber of Deputies, warned that failing the resolution of the candidacy in a manner satisfactory to the French government, "we shall know and do our duty without weakness or hesitation." The issue now became more inflamed as it was taken up by the French presss.
Alexander II (of Russia) (1818-1881), emperor of Russia (1855-1881), son of Emperor Nicholas I and nephew of Alexander I. He ascended the throne during the Crimean War and in 1856 signed the Treaty of Paris, which brought the hostiles to an end. After establishing a committee to study the need for reform, Alexander II abolished serfdom throughout Russia in 1861. He also abolished corporal punishment, established local self-government, initiated judicial reform, revised the educational system and developed a system of universal military service. Under his rule the administration of the police was greatly improved, and military operations in Central Asia and in a war with the Ottoman Empire (1877-1878) were highly successful. The Russian possessions in North America, now constituting the state of Alaska, were sold to the United States in 1867. Alexander was assassinated by a bomb thrown into his carriage by a member of a revolutionary group, Narodnaya Volya (People's Will).
Through it is impossible to pinpoint something as broad as the fall of the Romonav dynasty, for convenience sake, it seemed to start with emancipation of the serfs in 1861. Though technically emancipation abolished all legal obligations the peasantry had towards the land-owning nobility and allotted them their own strips of land, they were required to reimburse the landowners. Although their new land was expensive, it was not expansive. Tsar Alexander II gave the landholding elite the power to decide what land could be allotted to the serfs and how much. Naturally this resulted in the serfs owning little of the nobility's land, and the worst of it. The puny amounts of land the peasantry did own were often so inefficient that they could barely raise their livestock on it.
A political ideology, the central tenet of which is the conviction that governments ought to concern themselves with providing the conditions for the greatest good for the greatest number. Populists typically are opposed to both oligarchy, or government by the few, and plutocracy, or government by the wealthy. In Russia, reformists rallied behind the ideals of Alexander Herzen and established the Land of Freedom to progress this political movement.
Reform Bill of 1867
This 1867 Bill gave the vote to every male adult householder living in a borough constituency (the working class). Male lodgers paying 10 pounds for unfurnished rooms were also granted the vote. This gave the vote to about 1,500,000 men. The Reform Act also dealt with constituencies and boroughs with less than 10,000 inhabitants lost one of their MPs. The forty-five seats left available were distributed by: (1) giving fifteen to towns which had never had an MP; (2) giving one extra seat to some larger towns - Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, and Leeds; (3) creating a seat for the University of London; (4) giving twenty-five seats to counties whose population had increased since 1832.
Sardinian statesman and chief architect of Italy's unification. Cavour served in important cabinet positions (in Sardinia), and in 1852 he became prime minister. He improved internal conditions in Sardinia and conducted the foreign affairs of the country with the aim of unifying the Italian Peninsula. He allied Sardinia with Britain and France in the Crimean War (1854-56) against Russia. In 1858 he made an alliance with Napoleon III made peace with Austria in July 1859 without consulting Cavour. By the terms of the Treaty of Zurich in November 1859, Austria retained Venetia and ceded most of Lombardy to France. France in turn transferred the Lombardy cities of Peschiera and Mantua (Mantova) to Sardinia. When Victor Emmanuel II, king of Sardinia, accepted these peace terms, which left Austria powerful in northern Italy, Cavour resigned as prime minister.
After the death of Cavour, the Italian political nation could not overcome the problems generated from conservative resistance. A bicameral Parliament was established, in which the lower chamber of deputies was elected by strict franchise. Ministers devoted themselves to the monarch alone, and had the ability to condone governmental affairs. The system of transformismo was constructed, in which political opponents were converted into supporters by bribery and corruption.
After the National Assembly was organized, many Parisian radicals were dissatisfied. They established the municipal Paris Commune, which officially separated Paris from the other French political provinces. In general, this assembly was governed by various socialists and reformists. Eventually, the National Assembly bombarded the capital city and restored order by dissolving the Commune and killing many.
During the reign of Peter the Great, Westernizers and Slavophiles emerged as influential political factions of the nation. The former encouraged the imposition of Western culture in Russian life. They rallied behind the emancipation of slavery, forms of political representation, and a reformed judiciary system. In contrast, the Slavophiles supported the traditional Russian lifestyle and social roles. They advocated the autocracy, and maintained the need for serfdom.
Russian writer and one of the most influential and far-sighted Russia n revolutionaries of the 19th century. Herzen opposed the concept of a powerful, centralized nation-state, which he believed both stupefied the masses and frustrated the state's finest individual citizens. He conceived of Russia as a complex nation with a healthy agricultural backbone, rather than as an industrial giant. With a censorship restrictions relaxed after the death of Tsar Nicholas I in 1855, Herzen's radical newspaper Kolokol (The Bell) was distributed throughout Russia.
The People's Will
In 1789, Populism was on the rise against the tsar and his autocracy. However, the primary reformist organization, Land and Freedom, split into two groups. Thus, The People's Will was formed, and its advocates spurned the education of peasants. Its members decided to assassinate Alexander II in order to overthrow the autocratic political system. This society proved that the Russian reformist efforts were highly limited and ineffectual among the despotism of a tsar.
A British writer and prime minister who for more than three decades exerted a profound influence on British politics and left an enduring stamp on the Conservative Party, known until the 1830s as the Tory Party. In 1859, as Conservative leader in the House of Commons, Disraeli introduced a reform bill extending the franchise to all taxpayers. The bill failed to carry, but later Disraeli succeeded in amending the Reform Bills by passing the Reform Act of 1867, which extended suffrage to the working classes. When Derby retired in 1868, Disraeli became prime minister, but his government was defeated in the same year, and he spent six years in parliamentary opposition to Prime Minister William Gladstone. After the elections of 1874 Disraeli was able to form a strong majority government backed by the partisan sympathy of Queen Victoria.
Italian nationalist revolutionary and leader in the struggle for Italian unification and independence. When the revolutionary tide that swept over Europe in 1848 engulfed Italy, Garibaldi returned and again took part in the movement for Italian freedom and unification, thereafter known as the Risorgimento (Italian for "revival"). He organized a corps of about 3000 volunteers, which, in the service of the Piedmontese ruler Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, unsuccessfully fought the Austrians in Lombardy (Lombardia). In 1849 he led his volunteers to Rome to support the Roman Republic established by Mazzini and others. Garibaldi successfully defended the city against attacks by superior French forces for 30 days but was finally compelled t make terms with the French. Although he was allowed to depart from Rome with about 5000 of his followers, the line of retreat lay through territory controlled by the Austrians; the larger part of his force was killed, captured, or dispersed, and Garibaldi had to flee Italy to save his life.
By 1870, Italian unification was considerably complete. The central government persisted despite parliamentary shortcomings. After the Austro-Prussian War, Venetia was acquired. Also, Rome was captured after French troops withdrew at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War. Therefore, Trent and Trieste remained outside the national boundary. These areas fueled the hostilities of World War 1, in which the Italians sought to liberate Italia irredenta (unredeemed Italy).
The reorganization of Austria and Hungary was made possible by the Ausgleich [compromise] of 1867, a constitutional compromise between Hungarian aspirations for independence and Emperor Francis Joseph's desire for a strong, centralized empire as a source of power after Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. The Hungarians gained control of their internal affairs in return for agreeing to a centralized foreign policy and continued union of the Austrian and Hungarian crowns in the Hapsburg ruler. The agreement to establish the Dual Monarchy, which was worked out primarily by the Austrian foreign minister, Count Beust, and two Hungarians, the elder Count Andrassy and Francis Deak, divided the Hapsburg empire into two states. Cisleithania [Lat.,=the land on this side of the Leitha River] comprised Austria proper, Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Slovenia, and Austrian Poland; it was to be ruled by the Hapsburg monarch in their capacity as emperors of Austria. Transleithania [Lat.,=the land on the other side of the Leitha River] included Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and part of the Dalmatian coast; it was to be ruled by the Hapsburg monarchs in their capacity as kings of Hungary. Croatia was given a special status and allowed some autonomy but was subordinated to Transleithania, which also nominated the Croatian governor.
After serfdom was abolished, Russia underwent a radical governmental reorganization. The authority of village (regarded as the mir) communes replaced that of the conservative landowners. Members of this municipal assembly settled quarrels, collected taxes, and issued passports, owned the land, and received redemption payments. The nobility created zemstovs, or councils, to oversee local matters, such as bridges, roads, education, and agricultural production.
(1809-1898), four times prime minister of Britain (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, and 1892-1894), and one of the dominant political forces in Victorian England. Leader of the Liberal Party after 1867, Gladstone changed the role of government in England. Gladstone supported Peel's movement toward free trade, but in 1846, when Peel rescinded the Corn Laws, which had taxed imported grain, the Conservative Party was shattered, and Peel's government collapsed. Between 1846 and 1859 Gladstone, a Peelite, was politically isolated, although he held some cabinet posts. During this time his views changed from conservative to liberal. He accepted the need for religious freedom, including the admission of Jews into Parliament. He also supported the cause of Italian nationalism and unity, which made him a moral force throughout Europe. In 1859 he joined the Liberals and served as chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Palmerston. His consequent acceptance of the democratic principle made him a champion of the lower classes. In 1866 Gladstone proposed amending the Reform Acts to further enfranchise the working class by using certain monetary amounts paid to landlords as qualifiers, allowing people without land the right to vote. However, the proposal failed, and the government was forced to resign. Gladstone's great rival, Benjamin Disraeli, presented a stronger amendment to the Reform Acts that decreased financial qualifications and extended the vote to householders, including many urban workers. Disraeli's bill passed in 1867.
In 1884, a third reform act gave the franchise of the ballot to most fam workers. At this time, Irish nationalists rallied for home rule. Gladstone had returned to power, and declared the end of Irish Romantic Catholic taxation. Also, Charles Parnell participated in a land settlement, and organized a political party that held the balance of power within Parliament. Although a Home Rule Bill was passed after many attempts, granting Irish independence, its imposition was halted until after the duration of World War 1.
Alexander Herzen has been considered one of the most prominent critics of the autocracy of the Russian tsar. He published the newspaper called The Bell, which rallied behind reform. The articles inspired a number of Russian students and intellectuals (known as the "intelligentsia") to improve the limitations of the current reforms. They eventually formed the popular and political movements known as Populism, in which revolution societies were organized.