learning does not require behavior, it is a rapid processing of knowledge upon which behavior is built.
S-R / behaviorist approach
learning is a gradual strengthening of responses to various stimuli.
stimulus that naturally evokes a responde without priory training. that responde is an unconditioned one.
a previously neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to evoke a response after being paired with another stimulus.
the initial stages of learning in which the two stimuli are paired
the gradual weakening of CR tendency
the reappearance of CR after a period of non-exposure and presumed extinciton.
occurence of a CR to stimulus that resembles CS
when a subject does not respond to stimulus that resembles the CS
CS functioning so strongly that it can be used as a UCS
Thorndike's Law of Effect
if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened and that response will be repeated.
occurs when a positive event follows a certain response, increasing an organisms tendency to repeat that response.
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response. often is necessary when subject does not automatically elicite response.
gradual weakening of R because it is no longer reinforced
a cue that indicates the liklihood of reinforcement after a certain response
schedule of reinforcement
determines which correct R occurences will be reinforced
the most effective type of schedule of reinforcement
strengthens a response by presenting a positive stimulus
strengthens a response because it removes a negative stimulus
learning can occur even when it is not demonstrated by behavior or reinforced. Tolman's idea!!
studied monkeys and worked with cognitive approach that saw a rapid increase in learning.