theory that states that there was a supercontinent that split into the continents of today
(plate tectonics) a hypothetical continent including all the landmass of the earth prior to the Triassic period ~ 300 mya, when it split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland (LOL GONDWANALAND)
German geophysicist who proposed the theory of continental drift (1880-1930)
the study of large scale movement and deformation of the earth's outer layers in terms of rigid plates over a partly molten layer of the upper mantle
material that makes up the ocean floor
material that makes up landmasses
A circular movement in a liquid that carries heat from one place to another. In the earth it occurs in the mantle.
sea floor spreading
the theory that states that the sea floor moves apart and then at mid ocean ridges and causes continents to move, is evidence for continental drif
places where plates are pushed down into the upper mantle
an underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed
a long steep-sided depression in the ocean floor
A long trough at the top of an oceanic ridge
places where two plates collide
places where two plates pull apart
where two plates slide past each other, the san andreas fault is a
an upward fold in rock.
a downward fold in rock.
hanging wall slides up
hanging wall slides down
a reverse fault where the hanging wall slides over the top of the foot wall
the upper wall of an inclined fault ; you can hang from it
The block of rock below a fault ; you can walk by foot down it
break in rock caused by shear forces
forces pushing together
forces pulling apart
forces sliding by each other
series of mountains together
series of mountain ranges
group of two mountain systems
Large area of high flat or gently rolling land
This is the result of a continental-continental collision. The Himalaya Mountains are a good example of this.
sharp, jagged mountains made of huge, tilted blocks of rock that are separated form surrounding rock by faults and form because of the pulling forces
Long, narrow valleys formed by the process of fault-blocking.
mountains that form when molten rock erupts onto the earth's surface
Magma pushes up through the ground molten rock then cools and hardens creating this kind of mountains
up-and-down movements of the earth's crust to reach isostasy
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
states that as tectonic plates move relative to each other, elastic strain energy builds up along their edges in the rocks along fault planes. Since fault planes are not usually very smooth, great amounts of energy can be stored (if the rock is strong enough) as movement is restricted due to interlock along the fault. When the shearing stresses induced in the rocks on the fault planes exceed the shear strength of the rock, an earthquake occurs
a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake
volcanic deposit of hardened lava with a broad base and gentle slopes
Large, step volcanoes that erupt violently.
Small mountains with steep sides that blow cinders and rock particles into the air when they erupt.
When tecontic plates meet directly below a mantle plume, it forms these.
solid material ejected from a volcano during an eruption
rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos
scalding avalanche of ash and hot, toxic expanding gas, traveling very fast down the flank of a volcano
mudflows (water mixed with ash)
(geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)
the decompocition and disintegration of rocks and minerals at the earth's surface by a mechanical and chemical process
the process of physically breaking down rock. For example, plant growth can split rock apart
the process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
cracks in rocks filled with water that freezes and causes rock to crack
CO2+H20 -> CH2O3 (Carbonic Acid). water reacts with minerals in rocks and breaks them down.
the reaction that happens when iron rusts is an example of ....