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48) All of the following respiratory surfaces are associated with capillary beds except the
A) gills of fishes.
B) alveoli of lungs.
C) tracheae of insects.
D) skin of earthworms.
E) skin of frogs.

traechae of insects

49) If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of the following structures except the
A) right atrium.
B) pulmonary vein.
C) alveolus.
D) trachea.
E) right ventricle.

pulmonary vein

1) Gas exchange in the aquatic salamander known as the axolotl is correctly described as
A) active transport to move oxygen into the salamander from the water.
B) carrier-mediated transport to move oxygen into the salamander from the water.
C) facilitated diffusion of carbon dioxide from the salamander into the water.
D) simple diffusion of oxygen into the salamander from the water.
E) active transport of carbon dioxide from the salamander into the water.

simple diffusion of oxygen into the salamander from water

2) Circulatory systems have the primary benefit of overcoming the shortcomings of
A) temperature differences between the lungs and the active tissue.
B) the slow rate at which diffusion occurs across cells.
C) communication systems involving only the nervous system.
D) having to cushion animals from trauma.
E) fetal organisms maintaining an optimal body temperature.

the slow rate at which diffusion occurs across cells

3) To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must cross
A) zero membranesoxygen binds directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
B) one membranethat of the lining in the lungsand then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
C) two membranesin and out of the cell lining the lungand then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
D) four membranesin and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the pulmonary capillary-and then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
E) five membranesin and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the pulmonary capillary, and into the red blood cellto bind with hemoglobin.

E.

4) The fluid that moves around in the circulatory system of a typical arthropod is
A) the digestive juices.
B) the intracellular fluid.
C) the blood plasma.
D) the cytosol.
E) the interstitial fluid.

the interstitial fluid

5) Circulatory systems in molluscs
A) are open in all species of molluscs.
B) are closed in all species of molluscs.
C) are open in species of large-sized molluscs and are closed in species of small-sized molluscs.
D) are open in species of small-sized molluscs and are closed in species of large-sized molluscs.
E) are open or closed without regard to body size.

are open in species of small-sized molluscs and are closed in species of large-sized molluscs.

6) The circulatory system of bony fishes, rays, and sharks is similar to
A) that of birds, with a four-chambered heart.
B) the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber.
C) that of reptiles, with one pumping chamber driving blood flow to a gas-exchange organ, and a different pumping chamber driving blood to the rest of the circulation.
D) that of sponges, where gas exchange in all cells occurs directly with the external environment.
E) that of humans, where there are four pumping chambers to drive blood flow.

the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber

7) A significant increase in the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of a human's lungs will cause
A) an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide moving from the blood to the lungs.
B) an increase in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood.
C) a decrease in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood.
D) an increase of pressure that would cause the capillary beds to burst.
E) a decrease in the amount of work needed for effective ventilation of the lungs.

a decrease in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood

8) Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
A) an open circulatory system.
B) a closed circulatory system.
C) a gastrovascular cavity.
D) branched tracheae.
E) hemolymph.

a closed circulatory system

9) In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

frogs

10) The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the
A) amphibians.
B) birds.
C) fishes.
D) mammals.
E) reptiles.

fishes

11) To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n)
A) open circulatory system.
B) hemocoel.
C) lymphatic system.
D) two-chambered heart.
E) four-chambered heart.

four-chambered heart

12) A portal system is
A) an area connecting arterioles to venules.
B) a series of vessels that returns blood to the heart in an animal with an open circulatory system.
C) a space within or between organs where blood is allowed to pool.
D) a slightly muscular vessel that has minimal pumping action in an organism with no heart.
E) a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds.

a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds

13) Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta?
A) systole of the left atrium
B) diastole of the right ventricle
C) systole of the left ventricle
D) diastole of the right atrium
E) diastole of the left atrium

systole of the left ventricle

14) Which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels has blood that is the least similar in its gas content?
A) the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein
B) the veins from the right and left legs
C) the pulmonary artery and the vena cava
D) the pulmonary vein and the aorta
E) the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava

the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein

15) After several weeks of exercise, a human athlete's resting heart rate is typically lower than before because
A) the body needs less oxygen than before.
B) the body temperature has increased.
C) the stroke volume has increased.
D) the cardiac output has decreased.
E) the body produces less carbon dioxide than before.

the stroke volume has increased

16) A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery in the arm to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through
A) one capillary bed.
B) two capillary beds.
C) three capillary beds.
D) four capillary beds.
E) five capillary beds.

two capillary beds

17) Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in reptiles and mammals?
A) left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemic circulation
B) right ventricle → pulmonary vein → pulmocutaneous circulation
C) pulmonary vein → left atrium → left ventricle → pulmonary circuit
D) vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary circuit
E) right atrium → pulmonary artery → left atrium → ventricle

vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary circuit

18) A patient with a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/minute, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/minute will have a cardiac output of
A) 500 mL/minute.
B) 1,000 mL/minute.
C) 1,750 mL/minute.
D) 2,800 mL/minute.
E) 4,800 mL/minute.

D

19) Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans
A) is a major contributor to heart attacks.
B) would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers.
C) would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance.
D) would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions.
E) would have a direct effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta.

would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions

20) A stroke volume in the heart of 70 mL/cycle, with a pulse of 72 cycles per minute, results in a cardiac output of
A) 5 L/minute.
B) 504 mL/minute.
C) 0.5 L/minute.
D) 50 L/minute.
E) 500 L/minute.

5L/min

21) The semilunar valves of the mammalian heart
A) are the route by which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles.
B) are found only on the right side of the heart.
C) are the attachment site where the pulmonary veins empty into the heart.
D) prevent backflow of blood in the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
E) are at the places where the anterior and posterior venae cavae empty into the heart.

prevent backflow of blood in the aorta and pulmonary arteries

22) The material present in arterioles that is not present in capillaries is
A) fully oxygenated blood.
B) plasma in which carbon dioxide has been added.
C) a lining of endothelial cells.
D) circular smooth muscle cells that can alter the size of the arterioles.
E) white blood cells and platelets.

circular smooth muscle cells that can alter the size of the arterioles

23) The set of blood vessels with the slowest velocity of blood flow is
A) the arteries.
B) the arterioles.
C) the metarterioles.
D) the capillaries.
E) the veins.

capillaries

24) The set of blood vessels with the lowest blood pressure driving flow is
A) the arteries.
B) the arterioles.
C) the metarterioles.
D) the capillaries.
E) the veins.

the veins

25) An increased concentration of nitric oxide within a vascular bed is associated with
A) vasoconstriction.
B) vasodilation.
C) narrowing of the arteries.
D) a reduction in blood flow in that region.
E) a decreased amount of blood in the capillaries of that vascular bed.

vasodilation

26) Among the following choices, which organism likely has the highest systolic pressure?
A) mouse
B) rabbit
C) human
D) hippopotamus
E) giraffe

giraffe

27) Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with
A) increased activity of the immune system.
B) a broken limb.
C) blood sugar that is abnormally high.
D) dehydration.
E) sodium depletion.

increased activity of the immune system

28) The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because
A) the capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells.
B) the capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as distance from the heart increases.
C) the diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate.
D) the systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle.
E) the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system.

the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system.

29) The blood pressure is lowest in the
A) aorta.
B) arteries.
C) arterioles.
D) capillaries.
E) venae cavae.

venae cavae

30) Fluid is filtered out of the bloodstream into the surrounding interstitial fluid at the arteriole end of systemic capillaries because
A) the osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood.
B) the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid.
C) the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.
D) the osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood.
E) the osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid.

c

31) If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then
A) hemoglobin will not release oxygen.
B) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues.
C) the pH of the interstitial fluids will increase.
D) most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues.
E) plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries.

b

32) What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed?
A) more fluid entering the venous capillaries
B) an increase in the blood pressure in the capillary bed
C) the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas
D) fewer proteins leaking out of the blood to enter the interstitial fluid
E) the area of the blockage becoming abnormally small

C

33) A species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of >260 mm Hg is likely to be
A) an animal that is small and compact, without the need to pump blood very far from the heart.
B) an animal with abundant lipid storage.
C) a species that has very wide diameter veins.
D) an animal that has a very long distance between its heart and its brain.
E) an animal that makes frequent, quick motions.

D

34) Dialysis patients, who will have blood withdrawn, dialyzed, then replaced, are always weighed when they enter the facility and then weighed carefully again before they leave, because
A) even small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and therefore blood pressure.
B) many people who have dialysis are diabetic and must control their weight carefully.
C) dialysis removes blood proteins and these weigh more than other blood components.
D) dialysis is likely to cause edema and such swelling must be controlled.
E) reclining posture during dialysis can cause a tendency for weight gain.

A

35) Large proteins such as albumin remain in capillaries rather than diffusing out, resulting in the
A) loss of osmotic pressure in the capillaries.
B) development of an osmotic pressure difference across capillary walls.
C) loss of fluid from capillaries.
D) increased diffusion of CO2.
E) increased diffusion of Hb.

B

36) Vasoconstriction in the gut is a likely response when an individual is
A) lying down after standing up.
B) standing up after lying down.
C) stressed and secreting stress hormones.
D) responding to increased blood pressure.
E) having an allergy attack with lots of histamine secretion.

C

37) The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the
A) measurement of fatty deposits on the endothelium of arteries.
B) measurement of the LDL/HDL ratio in peripheral blood.
C) percent of blood volume made up of platelets.
D) blood pressure being greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and/or >90 diastolic.
E) number of leukocytes per mm3 of blood.

D

38) Among these choices, the biggest set that includes only those "cells" that lack nuclei is
A) platelets.
B) platelets and erythrocytes.
C) platelets, erythrocytes, and basophils.
D) platelets, erythrocytes, basophils, and neutrophils.
E) platelets, erythrocytes, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes.

B

39) In a healthy human, the typical life span of a red blood cell is
A) 24 hours.
B) one week.
C) one month.
D) four months.
E) 80 years or more.

four months

40) The hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the organ where this hormone is synthesized, are
A) growth hormone and pancreas, respectively.
B) erythropoietin and kidney, respectively.
C) cortisol and adrenal gland, respectively.
D) epinephrine and adrenal gland, respectively.
E) acetylcholine and bone marrow, respectively.

B

41) Dissolved proteins in human plasma include which of the following?
I. fibrinogen
II. hemoglobin
III. immunoglobulin
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III

C

42) The plasma proteins in humans
A) maintain the blood's osmotic pressure.
B) transport water-soluble lipids.
C) carry out gas exchange.
D) undergo aerobic metabolism.
E) transport oxygen.

A

43) Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are likely to
A) retain the normal cell shape, but the mitochondria will be poisoned.
B) lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell.
C) switch to anaerobic metabolism.
D) become unable to carry oxygen.
E) be unaffected.

E

44) Heart rate will increase in the presence of increased
A) low-density lipoproteins.
B) immunoglobulins.
C) erythropoietin.
D) epinephrine.
E) platelets.

D

45) The production of red blood cells is stimulated by
A) low-density lipoproteins.
B) immunoglobulins.
C) erythropoietin.
D) epinephrine.
E) platelets.

C

46) The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot is
A) chymotrypsin.
B) fibrin.
C) thrombin.
D) prothrombin.
E) collagen.

B

47) A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the
A) production of erythropoietin.
B) conversion of fibrin to fibrinogen.
C) activation of prothrombin to thrombin.
D) increase in platelets.
E) synthesis of hemoglobin.

C

48) When the air in a testing chamber is specially mixed so that its oxygen content is 10% and its overall air pressure is 400 mm Hg, then PO2 is
A) 400 mm Hg.
B) 82 mm Hg.
C) 40 mm Hg.
D) 21 mm Hg.
E) 4 mm Hg.

C

49) The sun shining on a tidal pool during a hot day heats the water. As some water evaporates, the pool becomes saltier, causing
A) a decrease in its carbon dioxide content.
B) a decrease in its oxygen content.
C) an increase in its ability to sustain aerobic organisms.
D) a decrease in the water's density.
E) a decrease in the movement of the water molecules.

B

50) Sponges, cnidarians, and flatworms lack a specialized gas exchange surface because
A) they are too large for a circulatory system to operate well.
B) they live without need for oxygen.
C) they do not produce carbon dioxide.
D) countercurrent exchange mechanisms cannot function well in their living conditions.
E) nearly all of their cells are in direct contact with the external environment.

E

51) Flying insects do all of the following except
A) increase metabolism as much as 200-fold during flight.
B) switch from diffusion of tracheal gases to active transport during flight.
C) utilize high numbers of mitochondria in flight muscles.
D) produce water molecules from oxygen in mitochondria.
E) generate carbon dioxide from catabolism of fuel molecules.

B

52) The epiglottis of a human covers the glottis when he or she is
A) talking.
B) breathing.
C) swallowing.
D) yawning.
E) sleeping.

C

53) In mammals, most gas exchange between the atmosphere and the pulmonary blood occurs in the
A) trachea.
B) larynx.
C) bronchi.
D) bronchioles.
E) alveoli.

E

54) Gas exchange is more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs because
A) water is less dense than air.
B) water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume.
C) gills have less surface area than lungs.
D) gills allow only unidirectional transport.
E) gills allow water to flow in one direction.

B

55) Countercurrent exchange is evident in
A) the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills.
B) the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae.
C) the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins.
D) the flow of water across the skin of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart.
E) the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid back into the venous end of the same capillary.

A

56) Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
A) endocytosis.
B) blood pressure.
C) diffusion.
D) active transport.
E) osmosis.

C

57) Air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange
A) in their specialized external gills.
B) in their specialized internal gills.
C) in the alveoli of their lungs.
D) across the membranes of their cells.
E) across all parts of their thin cuticular exoskeleton.

D

58) An oil-water mixture works as an insecticidal spray against mosquitoes and other insects because it
A) coats their lungs.
B) blocks the openings into the tracheal system.
C) interferes with gas exchange across the capillaries.
D) clogs their bronchi.
E) prevents gases from leaving the atmosphere.

B

59) Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume. The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in such conditions is
A) 160 mm Hg.
B) 16 mm Hg.
C) 120/75.
D) 21/760.
E) 760/21.

A

60) Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of
A) the sudden change from the uterine environment to the air.
B) the overproduction of surfactants.
C) the incomplete development of the lung surface.
D) lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant.
E) mutations in the genes involved in lung formation.

D

61) Of the following choices, impairment of a mammal's breathing cycle is most likely following neural damage in
A) the cerebrum and cerebellum.
B) the medulla oblongata and the pons.
C) the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex.
D) the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
E) the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe.

B

62) Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
A) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.
B) the volume of the alveoli increases as smooth muscles contract.
C) gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure.
D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs.
E) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes.

A

63) The exhalation of air from human lungs is driven by
A) a decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity.
B) a decrease in the residual volume of the lungs.
C) the contraction of the diaphragm.
D) the closure of the epiglottis.
E) the expansion of the rib cage.

A

64) As a person goes from rest to full-effort exercise, there is an increase in the
A) tidal volume.
B) vital capacity.
C) residual volume.
D) total lung capacity.
E) All of the above would be different.

A

65) A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of
A) 1,450 mL.
B) 4,000 mL.
C) 4,450 mL.
D) 5,000 mL.
E) 5,450 mL.

D

66) During most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely linked to the blood levels of
A) nitric acid.
B) nitrogen.
C) oxygen.
D) carbon dioxide.
E) carbon monoxide.

D

67) Breathing is usually regulated by
A) erythropoietin levels in the blood.
B) the concentration of red blood cells.
C) hemoglobin levels in the blood.
D) CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors.
E) the lungs and the larynx.

D

68) At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg of 21% oxygen, the partial pressure of oxygen is
A) 100 mm Hg.
B) 127 mm Hg.
C) 151 mm Hg.
D) 182 mm Hg.
E) 219 mm Hg.

D

69) At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately 21% of the total gases in the atmosphere, so the approximate partial pressure of oxygen is
A) 0.2 mm Hg.
B) 20.0 mm Hg.
C) 76.0 mm Hg.
D) 160.0 mm Hg.
E) 508.0 mm Hg.

D

70) At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If the atmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, then the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude is
A) 0 mm Hg.
B) 80 mm Hg.
C) 160 mm Hg.
D) 380 mm Hg.
E) 760 mm Hg.

B

71) Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect its pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as
A) the brain directly measures and monitors carbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly.
B) the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.
C) the brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide.
D) stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla oblongata to speed up or slow breathing.
E) the medulla oblongata is able to control the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood.

B

72) An increase from pH 7.2 to pH 7.4 around hemoglobin causes
A) hemoglobin to release all bound oxygen molecules.
B) an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin to bind oxygen molecules.
C) hemoglobin to denature.
D) an increase in the binding of H+ by hemoglobin.
E) hemoglobin to more readily give up its oxygen molecules.

B

73) An "internal reservoir" of oxygen in rested muscle is found in oxygen molecules bound to
A) hemoglobin.
B) bicarbonate ions.
C) carbonic acid.
D) actin and myosin.
E) myoglobin.

E

74) Hemoglobin and hemocyanin
A) are both found within blood cells.
B) are both red in color.
C) are both freely dissolved in the plasma.
D) both transport oxygen.
E) are both found in mammals.

D

75) The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in
A) the partial pressure of oxygen.
B) the partial pressure of carbon monoxide.
C) hemoglobin concentration.
D) temperature.
E) pH.

E

76) Most of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is
A) converted to bicarbonate ions by an enzyme in red blood cells.
B) bound to hemoglobin.
C) transported in the erythrocytes as carbonic acid.
D) simply dissolved in the plasma.
E) bicarbonate ions bound to hemoglobin.

A

77) Hydrogen ions produced within human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering plasma pH because they bind to
A) hemoglobin.
B) plasma proteins.
C) carbon dioxide.
D) carbonic acid.
E) plasma buffers.

A

78) The hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals in that
A) the oxygen dissociation curve for hemocyanin is linear.
B) hemocyanin carries appreciably more carbon dioxide.
C) hemocyanin has protein coupled to copper rather than iron.
D) the protein of hemocyanin is not bound to metal.
E) hemocyanin includes cyanic acid.

C

79) In an animal species known for endurance running rather than fast sprinting, you would expect to find
A) a slower rate of oxygen consumption so that its breathing will not have to be accelerated.
B) an increase of storage of oxygen in myoglobin of its muscles.
C) a relatively slow heart rate in order to lower oxygen consumption.
D) a lower pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.
E) a much higher rate of oxygen consumption for its size.

E

80) For this unusual capillary bed,
A) the pH is lower on the arterial side than on the venous side.
B) oxygen is taken up by the erythrocytes within the capillaries.
C) the osmotic pressure remains constant due to carbon dioxide compensation.
D) the hydrostatic pressure declines from the arterial side to the venous side because oxygen is lost.
E) fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re-enter on the venous side.

E

81) An anthropologist discovers the fossilized heart of an extinct animal. The evidence indicates that the organism's heart was large, well-formed, and had four chambers, with no connection between the right and left sides. A reasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the
A) animal had evolved from birds.
B) animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate.
C) animal was most closely related to alligators and crocodiles.
D) animal was likely an invertebrate animal.
E) species had little to no need to regulate blood pressure.

B

82) A group of students was designing an experiment to test the effect of smoking on grass frogs. They hypothesized that keeping the frogs in a smoke-filled environment for defined periods would result in the animals developing lung cancer. However, when they searched for previously published information to shore up their hypothesis, they discovered they were quite wrong in their original assessment. Even though they were never going to go ahead with their experiment (so as not to harm frogs needlessly), they knew that a more likely outcome of putting carcinogens in the air would be the development of
A) the amphibian equivalent of hypertension.
B) skin cancer.
C) gill abnormalities in the next generation of tadpoles.
D) tracheal tube abnormalities.
E) diminished absorption of oxygen.

B

83) Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply?
A) the lungs of a vertebrate
B) the gills of a fish
C) the tracheal system of an insect
D) the skin of an earthworm
E) the parapodia of a polychaete worm

C

84) Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the
A) vena cava.
B) left atrium.
C) right atrium.
D) left ventricle.
E) right ventricle.

B

85) Pulse is a direct measure of
A) blood pressure.
B) stroke volume.
C) cardiac output.
D) heart rate.
E) breathing rate.

D

86) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?
A) rising O2
B) falling O2
C) rising CO2
D) falling CO2
E) rising CO2 and falling O2

C

87) One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is
A) the number of heart chambers.
B) the type of gas exchange tissues.
C) a complete separation of circuits for circulation.
D) the number of circuits for circulation.
E) a low blood pressure in the systemic circuit.

D

88) If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following except
A) the pulmonary vein.
B) an alveolus.
C) the trachea.
D) the right atrium.
E) the right ventricle.

A

89) Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these cells in arteries has a
A) higher PO2.
B) higher PCO2.
C) greater bicarbonate concentration.
D) lower pH.
E) lower osmotic pressure.

A

90) Which of the following reactions prevails in red blood cells traveling through alveolar capillaries? (Hb = hemoglobin)
A) Hb + 4 O2 → Hb(O2)4
B) Hb(O2)4 → Hb + 4 O2
C) CO2 + H2O → H2CO3
D) H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3-
E) Hb + 4 CO2 → Hb(CO2)4

A

76) You are studying a large tropical reptile that has a high and relatively stable body temperature. How would you determine whether this animal is an endotherm or an ectotherm?
A) You know from its high and stable body temperature that it must be an endotherm.
B) You know that it is an ectotherm because it is not a bird or mammal.
C) You subject this reptile to various temperatures in the lab and find that its body temperature and metabolic rate change with the ambient temperature. You conclude that it is an ectotherm.
D) You note that its environment has a high and stable temperature. Because its body temperature matches the environmental temperature, you conclude that it is an ectotherm.
E) You measure the metabolic rate of the reptile, and because it is higher than that of a related species that lives in temperate forests, you conclude that this reptile is an endotherm and its relative is an ectotherm.

c

3) Which choice best describes a reasonable mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited over evolutionary time to specific functions?
A) Animals that eat the most food become the most abundant.
B) Animals that restrict their food intake will become less abundant.
C) Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant.
D) Animals with inventions that curtail reproduction will become more abundant.
E) Animals with parents that continually improve their offspring's structures will become more abundant.

c

4) Penguins, seals, and tuna have body forms that permit rapid swimming, because
A) all share a common ancestor at some point in the past.
B) all of their bodies have been compressed since birth by intensive underwater pressures.
C) flying, pregnancy, and gill-breathing all require similar adaptations in form.
D) the shape is a convergent evolutionary solution to the need to reduce drag while swimming.
E) this is the only shape that will allow them to maintain a constant body temperature in water.

d

5) Evolutionary adaptations that help diverse animals directly exchange matter between cells and the environment include
A) a gastrovascular activity, a two-layered body, and a torpedo-like body shape.
B) an external respiratory surface, a small body size, and a two-cell-layered body.
C) a large body volume; a long, tubular body; and a set of wings.
D) complex internal structures, a small body size, and a large surface area.
E) an unbranched internal surface, a small body size, and thick covering.

b

6) The similar fusiform body shape of diverse animals, such as sharks, penguins, and aquatic mammals, has evolved because
A) natural selection typically has no limits when different organisms face the same challenge.
B) respiration through gills is enhanced by having a fusiform shape.
C) this is the body shape that makes it possible for aquatic animals to swim rapidly.
D) the fusiform shape is coded by the same genes in all three types of aquatic animals.
E) all three types evolved from the same ancestral form, which flew in air rather than swam in water.

c

7) The specialized structures of complex animals have evolved because
A) the environment imposes identical problems regardless of where the animals are found.
B) the development of the specialized structures in an animal is influenced by the animal's ability to learn.
C) the simplest animals are those with the most recent appearance among the biota.
D) they permit adjustments to a wide range of environmental changes.
E) the most complex animals are the ones with the most ancient evolutionary origin.

D

26) Upon activation by stomach acidity, the secretions of the parietal cells
A) initiate the digestion of protein in the stomach.
B) initiate the mechanical digestion of lipids in the stomach.
C) initiate the chemical digestion of lipids in the stomach.
D) include pepsinogen.
E) delay digestion until the food arrives in the small intestine.

A

25) Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that
A) is manufactured by the pancreas.
B) helps stabilize fat-water emulsions.
C) splits maltose into monosaccharides.
D) begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.
E) is denatured and rendered inactive in solutions with low pH.

D

27) The bile salts
A) are enzymes.
B) are manufactured by the pancreas.
C) emulsify fats in the duodenum.
D) increase the efficiency of pepsin action.
E) are normally an ingredient of gastric juice.

C

28) Complex nutrients are digested and then absorbed into the lymph or bloodstream as
A) disaccharides.
B) polymers.
C) monomers.
D) enzymes.
E) peptides.

C

29) An enzyme with high activity in an acidic environment is
A) amylase.
B) pepsin.
C) gastrin.
D) trypsin.
E) sucrose.

B

30) The absorption of fats differs from that of carbohydrates in that the
A) processing of fats does not require any digestive enzymes, whereas the processing of carbohydrates does.
B) fat absorption occurs in the stomach, whereas carbohydrates are absorbed from the small intestine.
C) carbohydrates need to be emulsified before they can be digested, whereas fats do not.
D) most absorbed fat first enters the lymphatic system, whereas carbohydrates directly enter the blood.
E) fats, but not carbohydrates, are digested by bacteria before absorption.

D

31) A nutritional monomer that can be transported in the blood after a typical meal is
A) sucrose.
B) maltose.
C) fatty acid.
D) dipeptide.
E) trinucleotide.

C

32) For a nondiabetic person, the glucose concentration in this part of the vasculature varies more than in any other part.
A) abdominal artery
B) coronary arteries
C) pulmonary veins
D) hepatic portal vessel
E) jugular vein

D

33) Glandular secretions that are released initially as inactive precursors of digestive enzymes are the
A) protein-digesting enzymes.
B) fat-solubilizing bile salts.
C) acid-neutralizing bicarbonate.
D) carbohydrate-digesting enzymes.
E) hormones such as gastrin.

A

34) Because adult lampreys attach onto the surface of large fish for long periods of time to feed on body fluids, they can accomplish nutritional balance without need for a
A) liver.
B) pancreas.
C) intestine.
D) stomach.
E) gallbladder.

D

38) A significant contribution of intestinal bacteria to human nutrition is the benefit of bacterial
A) production of vitamins A and C.
B) generation of gases needed for elimination.
C) absorption of organic materials.
D) production of vitamin K.
E) recovery of water from fecal matter.

D

39) The cells that secrete acidic fluid in the stomach are
A) the chief cells of the stomach.
B) the parietal cells of the stomach.
C) not needed for the transformation of pepsinogen to pepsin.
D) in the lumen of the stomach.
E) adding secretions along the esophagus.

D

40) Stomach cells are moderately well adapted to the acidity and protein-digesting activities in the stomach by having
A) a sufficient colony of H. pylori.
B) a thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells.
C) a high level of secretion by chief cells.
D) a high level of secretion from parietal cells.
E) secretions enter the stomach from the pancreas.

B

51) A fasting animal whose energy needs exceed those provided in its diet draws on its stored resources in which order?
A) fat, then glycogen, then protein
B) glycogen, then protein, then fat
C) liver glycogen, then muscle glycogen, then fat
D) muscle glycogen, then fat, then liver glycogen
E) fat, then protein, then glycogen

C

58) Many obese humans produce normal or increased levels of leptin without satiety, so the search for healthy regulation of food intake should focus on
A) providing supplementary leptin.
B) inactivation of leptin.
C) overexpression of the leptin receptor gene.
D) eliminating carbohydrates from the diet.
E) inhibition of leptin receptors.

D

12) Interstitial fluid is
A) the fluid inside the gastrovascular cavity of Hydra.
B) the internal environment inside animal cells.
C) identical to the composition of blood.
D) the route for the exchange of materials between blood and body cells.
E) found only in the lumen of the small intestine.

D

18) Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with
A) connective tissue.
B) smooth muscle cells.
C) neural tissue.
D) epithelial tissue.
E) adipose tissue.

D

19) An example of a connective tissue is the
A) skin.
B) nerves.
C) blood.
D) cuboidal epithelium.
E) smooth muscles.

C

22) Connective tissues typically have
A) many densely packed cells with direct connections between the membranes of adjacent cells.
B) a supporting material such as chondroitin sulfate.
C) the ability to shorten upon stimulation.
D) relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix.
E) the ability to transmit electrochemical impulses.

D

23) The fibers responsible for the elastic resistance properties of tendons are
A) elastin fibers.
B) fibrin fibers.
C) collagenous fibers.
D) reticular fibers.
E) spindle fibers.

C

24) If you gently twist your earlobe, it does not remain distorted because it contains
A) collagenous fibers.
B) elastin fibers.
C) reticular fibers.
D) adipose tissue.
E) loose connective tissue.

B

25) The nourishment, insulation, and support for neurons is the result of activity by the
A) smooth muscles.
B) adipose tissue.
C) endocrine system.
D) intercalated disks.
E) glial cells.

E

26) Fibroblasts secrete
A) fats.
B) chondroitin sulfate.
C) interstitial fluids.
D) calcium phosphate for bone.
E) proteins for connective fibers.

E

27) Breathing is accomplished via the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of
A) smooth muscle.
B) skeletal muscle.
C) cardiac muscle.
D) smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
E) smooth muscle and skeletal muscle.

B

29) Muscles are joined to bones by
A) ligaments.
B) tendons.
C) loose connective tissue.
D) Haversian systems.
E) spindle fibers.

B

34) All types of muscle tissue have
A) intercalated disks that allow cells to communicate.
B) striated banding patterns seen under the microscope.
C) cells that lengthen when appropriately stimulated.
D) a response that can be consciously controlled.
E) interactions between actin and myosin.

E

39) The cells lining the air sacs in the lungs make up a
A) cuboidal epithelium.
B) simple squamous epithelium.
C) stratified squamous epithelium.
D) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
E) simple columnar epithelium.

B

42) An example of effectors' roles in homeostatic responses is observable when
A) an increase in body temperature results from involuntary shivering.
B) an increase in body temperature results from exercise.
C) the rising sun causes an increase in body temperature in a stationary animal.
D) an increase in body temperature results from fever.
E) a decrease in body temperature results from shock.

A

47) Humans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the process of
A) conduction.
B) convection.
C) radiation.
D) evaporation.
E) metabolism.

D

50) Endothermy
A) is a characteristic of most animals found in tropical zones.
B) is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly constant body temperature.
C) is a term equivalent to cold-blooded.
D) is a characteristic of mammals but not of birds.
E) is seen only in insects and in certain predatory fishes.

B

52) An example of an organism that has only behavioral controls over its body temperature is the
A) green frog.
B) penguin.
C) bluefin tuna.
D) house sparrow.
E) gray wolf.

A

53) Most land-dwelling invertebrates and all of the amphibians
A) are ectothermic organisms with variable body temperatures.
B) alter their metabolic rates to maintain a constant body temperature of 37°C.
C) have a net loss of heat across a moist body surface, even in direct sun.
D) are endotherms but become thermoconformers only when they are in water.
E) become more active when environmental temperatures drop below 15°C.

A

54) The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the
A) medulla oblongata.
B) thyroid gland.
C) hypothalamus.
D) subcutaneous layer of the skin.
E) liver.

C

55) A female Burmese python incubating her eggs can warm them using
A) acclimatization.
B) torpor.
C) evaporative cooling.
D) nonshivering thermogenesis.
E) shivering thermogenesis.

E

56) In mammals this response is known as fever, but it is known to raise body temperature in other bacterially infected animals, including lizards, fishes, and cockroaches.
A) growth of hair on the limbs
B) reduced metabolic rate
C) sweating from skin glands
D) a change in the body's thermostat "set point"
E) decreased thermogenesis in brown fat

D

58) Seasonal changes in snake activity are due to the fact that the snake
A) is less active in winter because the food supply is decreased.
B) is less active in winter because it does not need to avoid predators.
C) is more active in summer because that is the period for mating.
D) is more active in summer because it can gain body heat by conduction.
E) is more active in summer as a result of being disturbed by other animals.

D

59) Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are
A) used differently: SMR is measured during exercise, whereas BMR is measured at rest.
B) used to compare metabolic rate between hibernating and nonhibernating states.
C) both measured across a wide range of temperatures for a given species.
D) both standard measurements of fat metabolism in mammals.
E) both measured in animals in a resting and fasting state.

E

64) Hibernation and estivation during seasons of environmental stress are both examples of
A) acclimatization.
B) torpor.
C) evaporative cooling.
D) nonshivering thermogenesis.
E) shivering thermogenesis.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 40.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

B

66) Catabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during
A) acclimatization.
B) torpor.
C) evaporative cooling.
D) nonshivering thermogenesis.
E) shivering thermogenesis.

D

67) A moth preparing for flight on a cold morning warms its flight muscles via
A) acclimatization.
B) torpor.
C) evaporative cooling.
D) nonshivering thermogenesis.
E) shivering thermogenesis.

E

74) Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has
A) less surface area.
B) less surface area per unit of volume.
C) the same surface-to-volume ratio.
D) a smaller average distance between its mitochondria and the external source of oxygen.
E) a smaller cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio.

B

75) An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs
A) if the animal is an endotherm, which must always take in more energy because of its high metabolic rate.
B) if it is actively foraging for food.
C) if it is hibernating.
D) if it is growing and increasing its mass.
E) never; homeostasis makes these energy and material budgets always balance.

D

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