materials made from a single type of atom that cannot be broken down any further
when two or more atoms combine chemically this forms the basic constituent of many different kinds of material
evidence for the theory that an atom is mostly space was based on research by this man
this is how the elements are arranged on the periodic table
discovery of the nucleus
some alpha particles were deflected by gold nuclei in Rutherford's experiment
atomic number of 8
is an element that is composed of atoms with only eight protons
atoms would be constantly emitting energy
physical principles predict that the solar system model of the atom cannot be viable for this reason
uncertainties exist in our knowledge of positions and velocities of objects when we first start observing them.
double slit apparatus
was used a famous experiment to distinguish waves from particles
larger than Planck's constant divides by mass
in quantum mechanics the product of the uncertainty in position times the uncertainty in the velocity must be
objects we normally encounter have mass in amounts that make the effects of the uncertainty principle practically non-existent
why do we not have to worry about the uncertainty principle in our everyday life?
this term refers to the theory that describes events at the scale of the atom.
Freezing and boiling
examples of processes that cause physical change
the redistribution of electrons between atoms, leading to a more stable configuration
metallic bonds create materials with properties that make them what?
the electrons in the outer level of the atom
Sodium chloride (NaCl) atoms form a crystal lattice that is held together by what?
make the best electrical conductor
gold and copper
an example of a metallic bond
their neutrons differ in number
how do two isotopes of the same element differ?
time since the death of a living thing
a scientist who uses carbon-14 dating is actually measuring what?
most of the energy in a nuclear power plant is generated by conversion of what?
an electron is to a beta particle as helium is to a(n)...
quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule
what are the building blocks of matter from smallest to largest
quarks exist in the nucleus; leptons do not
the difference between a quark and a lepton is...
quarks are one of the building blocks of matter what is a particle or structure that would not contain any quarks at all?