the study of people, environments, and resources
broad area of fairly level land generally close to sea level
dry region west of the Interior Plains
Isthmus of Panama
narrow strip of land that separates North and South America
mountains of North America
Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Adirondack Mountains,
part of a country that borders another country
entire way of life developed by a group of people
town in Spanish colonies
dinner held by west coast Native Americans to show off wealth
the study of how people are governed, who has power, and how laws are made and enforced
the study of the past. A historian studies events that occurred during a particular time period.
the study of nature, origin, and development of human society and community life. Deals with social conditions such as crime poverty and how people live in groups
system of rules by lords who ruled their own lands but owed loyalty and military service to a monarch
between 1100 &1300, series of wars fought by Christians to gain control of Holy Land
the western part of the terrestrial globe, including North and South America, their islands, and the surrounding waters.
Cape of Good Hope
A promontory on the southwest coast of South Africa south of Cape Town. It was first circumnavigated in 1488 by Bartolomeu Dias, who named it Cape of Storms.
a waterway through or around North America
capital of the Aztecs
capital of Mayans
navigational instrument used to determine latitude
Coureurs de bois
French term meaning "runner of the woods"
harsh Dutch land owner
group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the government of their native land
person who agreed to work without wages for a period of time in exchange for a passage to the colonies
colony of Virginia that grew to about 700 people within 3 years of starting
representative assembly in England
a 1620 agreement for ruling the Plymouth colony
House of Burgesses
representative assembly in colonial Virginia
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
a 1639 plan of government in the Puritan colony in Connecticut
Albany Plan of Union
proposal by Benjamin Franklin to create one government in the 13 colonies
signed in 1215, a British document that contained two basic ideas: monarchs have to obey laws, citizens have basic rights
Writs of Assistance
legal document that allowed British customs officials to inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason
Boston Tea Party
a 1773 protest in which the colonists dressed as Indians and dumped British tea into the Boston Harbor
a person who wanted to break away from Britain and be independent
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party
laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
a 1770 conflict in which 5 colonists were killed by British troops
Committees of Correspondence
letter writing campaign that became a major tool of protest in the colonies
a 1765 law that placed new duties on legal documents, and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice
Treaty of Paris 1783
peace treaty between Britain and the U.S., ratified in 1783, that recognized the United States as an independent nation
Articles of Confederation
first American constitution, passed in 1777, which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
a 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to high taxes
opening statement of the Constitution that states basic rights
document that sets laws, principles, organization, and process of government
Slave Trade Compromise
said that the U.S. would allow slave trade and then discuss it again in 20 years.
said states could count 60% of slaves in their total population
Bill of Rights
1st 10 amendments made to the Constitution
group of a few people who act as assistants to the president
Judiciary Act of 1789
law that created the structure of a Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation
a 1797 French attempt to bribe the U.S. by demanding money before discussing French seizure of American ships
not taking sides
said that the Supreme Court could declare a law unconstitutional
group of people that elect the president
stirring up rebellion against a government
French term meaning "leave it alone"
when Monroe told European countries not to get involved with U.S. affairs and that we wouldn't bother them either if they agreed
the U.S. buys Louisiana from the French for 15 million dollars
in mid 1800s, a term referring to the idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
a government where all people have the same rights
Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer who explored Florida for Spain
Italian navigator and explorer of the South American coast. America was named in his honor.
Norse mariner: according to Icelandic saga, discoverer of Vinland (son of Eric the Red).
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer who sailed from Cape of Good Hope to Southeast Asia
Spanish conquistador determined to defeat the Incas
sailed 150 miles down the present day Hudson River
Spanish explorer who explored the Isthmus of Panama
traveled half of the St. Lawrence River
Spanish conquistador who led expedition to southwestern North America
Protestant reformers who believe in the equality of all people
founded colony of Pennsylvania
settled colony of Rhode Island
founded colony of Maryland
chief justice of Supreme Court appointed by Adams
7th president of United States
lived in Central Mexico. They used floating gardens, 18 month calendar, worshipped sun god, called "warriors of the sun", believed leader was a god, had heavy taxes, and used human sacrifice
lived in South Mexico and Guatemala. They grew corn, drained swamps, had high priests and nobles, worshipped many gods, 365 day calendar, invented 0, and used pictograms.
lived on the west coast of South America. They had a large empire, used terraces for farming, grew 100 kinds of potatoes, built temples and palaces, runners were messengers, had skilled engineers, used a quipu as a counting device.
some customs: waited to name children until they dreamt a name, taught discipline by giving lectures, throwing water in the face, and kicking them out of the longhouse, healed the sick by wearing false face masks. Belief: told stories called legends. Lived in present day NYS
French and Indian War
results of this: the French empire ended in North America. The British won.
didn't want to separate from Church of England, wanted to do away with practices of the Roman Catholic, very serious about religion
passed to make sure that trade only benefited Britain, not the colonies. Good because it kept U.S. from trouble with other countries. Bad because the colonies could only send and recieve from England. Also, they were more tempted to smuggle
Declaration of Independence
consists of Preamble, Natural Rights, British Wrongs, and Independence
farmers were most important citizens, state government has power, Foreign ally is France, Bank if U.S. gave federal gov't too much power, interpret Constitution strictly, Republican party, opposed tariff.
Marbury vs. Madison
Marbury blamed Madison for not receiving his appointment letter. Judicial Review created from this case.
Executive: 4 year term, President and Vice president, chosen by Electoral College. Judicial: Supreme Court (justices), 9 justices, serve for life, appointed by president. Legislative: House of Representatives, 435 reps, 2 year term, elected by congressional district
Checks and Balances
system that makes sure one branch does not have more power than another. Each branch gets equal opportunities.
first person to reach the americas